1. Geographers __________ A. study the distribution of languages. B. study how languages diffuse. C. study how languages change and even become extinct. D. study how language contributes to making places unique. E. All of these. 2. In the United States, the common name for a soft drink varies by region. This is an example of A. cultural vocabulary. B. lingua franca. C. a dialect. D. a dialect chain. E. an isogloss. 3. Indo-European, Amerindian, and other indigenous languages are found in __________ . A. North and South America. B. South America. C. Europe and North America. D. India and Europe. E. India, Europe, and the Americas. 4. The notions of William Jones and the ideas of Jakob Grimm __________ . A. dispelled the myth of an ancient Indo-European language. B. produced the first translations Europe's fairy tales. C. produced a major language shift in Europe. produced the first major linguistic hypothesis, proposing the existence of an ancestral language D. called Proto-Indian-European. E. employed backward reconstruction to recreate an extinct language. 5. If peoples with different languages have consistent spatial interaction, __________ can take place. A. language homogenization B. language convolution C. language convergence D. the conquest theory E. the dispersal hypothesis 6. The fact that Celtic languages are Europe's oldest supports the idea that __________ . A. urban populations spread new languages into Europe. B. new languages arrived from the east. C. new languages arrived from the Americas. D. the conquest theory is false. E. a Nostratic language once existed in western Europe. 7. Studying language subfamilies helps geographers understand __________ . A. why societies create official languages. B. migration and settlement patterns. C. extinct languages. D. urbanization. E. racism. 8. Globalization is __________ the world's linguistic heritage. A. not affecting B. expanding C. shrinking D. enhancing E. adding subtypes to 9. Predominantly monolingual states include: __________ . A. Japan B. Uruguay C. Denmark D. Lesotho E. All of these. 10. Geographers study __________ as clues to the social processes going on in a particular area. A. toponyms B. topography C. language chains D. language barriers E. language clashes 11. __________ is to descriptive toponyms as __________ is to commendatory toponyms. A. New York, the Mississippi River B. Dallas, the Great Lakes C. Llanfairpwllgwyngyllgogerychwyrndrobwllllantysiliogogogoch, Hell's Canyon D. Culture, ethnicity E. Globalization, localization 12. The geographical boundary between the linguistic use of pail and bucket is called __________ A. a linguistic break. B. a fault line. C. a dialect intrusion. D. an isoline. E. an isogloss.