Nutrition Review Outline - LaPazColegio2014-2015

Nutrition - Linking biochemistry and human metabolism
What Are Nutrients?
o Nutrients: the chemicals in foods/drinks that are critical to human growth and
o There are six groups of essential nutrients:
Fats and oils
Macronutrients vs. micronutrients?
o Macronutrients: nutrients required in relatively large amounts (g, grams)
 Provide energy
 Carbohydrates, fats and oils, proteins
o Micronutrients: nutrients required in smaller amounts (micros grams, g or
milligrams, mg)
 Vitamins and minerals
o Carbohydrates
 Primary source of fuel for the body, especially for the brain
 Provide 4 kcal per gram
 Found in grains (wheat, rice), vegetables, fruits, and legumes
o Fats and Oils
 Composed of lipids, molecules that are insoluble in water
 Provide 9 kcal per gram
 Important energy source during rest or low-intensity exercise
 Found in butter, margarine, vegetable oils
o Proteins
 Chains of amino acids
 Can supply 4 kcal of energy per gram, but are not a primary energy source
 Important source of nitrogen, Building cells and tissues, Maintaining bones,
Repairing damage, Regulating metabolism, Fluid balance
 Protein sources include meats, dairy products, seeds, nuts, and legumes
o Vitamins
 organic molecules that assist in regulating body processes
 do not supply energy to our bodies
 Fat-soluble vitamins
 Water-soluble vitamins
o Minerals
 Major Minerals vs. Trace Mineral
 Our bodies require at least 100 mg/day of the major minerals, such as
calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium, and chloride
 We require less than 100 mg/day of the trace minerals, such as iron,
zinc, copper, iodine, and fluoride
 Sodium
 Fluid and electrolyte balance
 Associated with blood pressure and pH balance in the body
 Required for nerve impulse transmission
 Assists in the transport of certain nutrients (e.g., glucose) into cells
 Potassium
 Fluid and electrolyte balance
 muscle contractions and transmission of nerve impulses
 High potassium intake helps to maintain a lower blood pressure
 Helps to maintain acid–base balance
o Water is a critical nutrient for health and survival
o Water is involved in many body processes:
 fluid balance
 nutrient transport
 nerve impulses
 removal of wastes
 muscle contractions
 chemical reactions
 Maintain Body Temperature