8-7 Notes to go with power point

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8.7 MUTATIONS
_______________ are changes in ____________
that may or may not affect phenotype.
Some mutations affect a
___________________, while others affect an
entire chromosome.
Many kinds of mutations can occur, especially
during replication.
A ______________________________ substitutes one______________________________ for another.
_______________________: where one base is changed to another. These usually affect only _______ _____________.
_________________________________: only changes one amino acid
_________________: a __________________ appears too soon, shortening the
protein
________________________: NO changes in
amino acid
A___________________________ mutation inserts or deletes a nucleotide in the DNA sequence
These usually affect a ____________ part of the protein. Remember, bases are read in groups of three, but if one base
is added or removed, this shifts the “reading frame” of the genetic code and can change __________________________
after the site of the mutation
______________________________________________: involve changes in the number or structure of the
chromosomes.
Can change the locations of genes on chromosomes
___________________: reverses the direction of
parts of the chromosomes
____________________: part of one chromosome
breaks off and attaches to another.
Can change the number of copies of some genes
_________________: a part of the chromosome is lost
____________________: there is an extra copy
of part of the chromosome
Mutations may or may not affect phenotype.
_____________________________ mutations tend to have a big effect.
Mutations can be caused by several factors.
_______________________________ can cause mutations.
Mutagens, such as __________________ and ________________________, can cause mutations.
Some cancer drugs use mutagenic properties to kill cancer cells.
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