Earth Science Semester 1 Exam Study Guide S6E5a. Compare and

Earth Science Semester 1 Exam Study Guide
S6E5a. Compare and contrast the Earth’s crust, mantle, and core including temperature, density,
and composition.
1. Describe the state of matter and composition for the layers of the earth. Crust – solid rock, Mantle solid and liquid rock, Outer Core – liquid iron and nickel, Inner Core – solid iron and nickel
2. Which layer of earth is made up of tectonic plates? Lithosphere
3. How do geologists observe the Earth’s interior? By recording and studying seismic waves
4. What is the core mostly made of? Iron and Nickel
5. Describe the material that makes up the Earth’s asthenosphere? A solid that is able to flow
6. How does the Earth’s temperature and pressure change as you travel deeper into the earth? Both the
temperature and pressure increase
7. What do geologists believe to be the source of the Earth’s magnetic field? Core
8. How does the core of the Earth compare to the mantle in terms of temperature and density? The core
has a higher temperature and higher density
S6E5b. Investigate the contribution of minerals to rock composition.
9. What are two things that all minerals have in common? They are formed naturally and are
10. What is a mineral in its powdered form called? streak
11. List the properties of minerals. Minerals are inorganic and have a crystalline structure
12. What mineral property describes the way a mineral reflects light? luster
Way it breaks
gray-black silver, gray
metallic-dull red-brown red-brown, silver,
Use the chart above to answer the following question: Lisa wants to identify a dark, heavy mineral
sample she found in the classroom collection. She notices there are three minerals in a chart in a
reference book that might match her sample, Lisa next observer that her sample mineral has flat,
reflective surfaces that break into boxlike steps. She infers the mineral may be galena. If she is
correct, one more test will verify her inference. Which property would be best for her to observe
next? Hardness
S6E5.c Classify rocks by their process of formation.
14. When lava cools quickly what kind of rock does it form? Extrusive igneous
15. What is the order of events in the formation of sedimentary rocks? Weathering, erosion,
deposition, cementation
16. What characteristic is common to metamorphic rocks? Ribbon-like layers
17. What characteristic is found in sedimentary rock? Fossils
18. Why do some igneous rocks have holes? Bubbles of air were trapped in the rock when it
cooled quickly
19. What type of rock is tan in color, fine-grained, and contains fossils? Sedimentary rock
S6E5.f Explain the effects of physical processes (plate tectonics, erosion, deposition,
volcanic eruption, gravity) on geological features including oceans (composition, currents,
and tides).
20. Which layer(s) of the Earth is a combination of the crust and the upper mantle? Lithosphere
21. Why was Alfred Wegener’s idea of continental drift rejected? Wegener could not identify
a force that could move the continents
22. What is the process by which the ocean floor sinks beneath a deep-ocean trench and back
into the mantle? Subduction
23. Where are the results of the plate movement seen at? Plate Boundaries
24. What is the main reason that the continents look very different than they did 100 million
years ago? The continents have drifted apart from one another on plates
25. What causes the movement of the Earth’s tectonic plates? Convection currents
26. What is not used as evidence to support the theory of continental drift? The existence of
convection currents
27. What are U-shaped valleys formed by? Glaciers
28. What causes sediment and rock to move to lower elevations through time? Gravity
S6E5.h Describe soil as consisting of weathered rocks and decomposed organic material.
29. What does organic matter break down into? Nutrients
30. What is humus? The decomposed organic matter in soil
31. How does soil receive the nutrients that it gets to be healthy soil? When organic matter
decays and turns into humus
32. Al wants to determine in which horizon an unknown type of soil is found. He finds out
through testing that it is dark and contains a lot of decomposed organic matter. He determines
that this kind of soil is found in _____topsoil____________
33. How are minerals carried from the A horizon to the B horizon?
S6E6. Students will describe various sources of energy and their uses and conservation.
34. When people practice conservation, they ___use their resources wisely_____.
35. What can be burned to produce biomass? wood, garbage, and organic material
36. List the energy resources that are used as alternatives to or instead of fossil fuels.
Energy from natural gas
37. Places where magma is close to the Earth’s surface may be suitable for generating what?
Geothermal energy
38. I am used mainly in the western US. My energy comes from the heat within the Earth. I can
be used for home heating. Water that is piped down to me is turned into steam to turn turbines
and generate energy. What am I? Geothermal energy
S6E6.b Identify renewable and nonrenewable resources.
39. A resource that after being used can be replaced in a short amount of time is said to be what?
Renewable resources