Earth Science Semester 1 Exam Study Guide S6E5a. Compare and

Earth Science Semester 1 Exam Study Guide
S6E5a. Compare and contrast the Earth’s crust, mantle, and
core including temperature, density, and composition.
1. Describe the state of matter and composition for the layers of
the earth. Crust – solid rock, Mantle - solid and liquid
rock, Outer Core – liquid iron and nickel, Inner Core –
solid iron and nickel
2. Which layer of earth is made up of tectonic plates?
3. How do geologists observe the Earth’s interior? By recording
and studying seismic waves
4. What is the core mostly made of? Iron and Nickel
5. Describe the material that makes up the Earth’s
asthenosphere? A solid that is able to flow
6. How does the Earth’s temperature and pressure change as you
travel deeper into the earth? Both the temperature and
pressure increase as you go deeper into the earth.
7. What do geologists believe to be the source of the Earth’s
magnetic field? Core
8. How does the core of the Earth compare to the mantle in
terms of temperature and density? The core has a higher
temperature and higher density
S6E5b. Investigate the contribution of minerals to rock
9. What are two things that all minerals have in common? They
are formed naturally and are inorganic
10. What is a mineral in its powdered form called? Streak
11a. What are the properties of minerals? Hardness, the way it
breaks (cleavage or fracture), luster, streak, color
11b. List the characteristics of minerals. Minerals are
naturally formed, inorganic, an element or a compound
(more than one element), and have a crystalline structure,
unique chemical formula
12. What mineral property describes the way a mineral reflects
light? Luster
Way it breaks
gray-black silver, gray
metallic-dull red-brown red-brown, silver,
Use the chart above to answer the following question: Lisa wants to identify a dark, heavy mineral
sample she found in the classroom collection. She notices there are three minerals in a chart in a
reference book that might match her sample, Lisa next observed that her sample mineral has flat,
reflective surfaces that break into boxlike steps. She infers the mineral may be galena. If she is
correct, one more test will verify her inference. Which property would be best for her to observe
next? Hardness
6E5.c Classify rocks by their process of formation.
14. When lava cools quickly what kind of rock does it form? Extrusive
15. What is the order of events in the formation of sedimentary
rocks? Weathering, erosion, deposition, compaction,
cementation (W.E.D.C.C.)
16. What characteristic is common to metamorphic rocks?
Foliated = Ribbon-like layers
17. What characteristic is found in sedimentary rock? Fossils
18. Why do some igneous rocks have holes? Bubbles of air
(gas) were trapped in the rock when it cooled quickly
19. What type of rock is tan in color, fine-grained, and contains
fossils? Sedimentary rock
S6E5.f Explain the effects of physical processes (plate
tectonics, erosion, deposition, volcanic eruption, gravity) on
geological features including oceans (composition, currents,
and tides).
20. Which layer(s) of the Earth is a combination of the crust and
the upper mantle? Lithosphere
21. Why was Alfred Wegener’s idea of continental drift
rejected? Wegener could not identify a force that could move
the continents
22. What is the process by which the ocean floor sinks beneath a
deep-ocean trench and back into the mantle? Subduction
23. Where are the results of the plate movement seen ? Plate
24. What is the main reason that the continents look very
different than they did 100 million years ago? The continents
have drifted apart from one another on plates
25. What causes the movement of the Earth’s tectonic plates?
Convection currents
26. What is not used as evidence to support the theory of
continental drift? The existence of convection currents
27. What are U-shaped valleys formed by? Glaciers
28. What causes sediment and rock to move to lower elevations
through time? Gravity
S6E5.h Describe soil as consisting of weathered rocks and
decomposed organic material.
29. What does organic matter break down into? Nutrients
30. What is humus? The decomposed organic matter or
material in soil
31. How does soil receive the nutrients that it gets to be healthy
soil? When organic matter decays and turns into humus
32. Al wants to determine in which horizon an unknown type of
soil is found. He finds out through testing that it is dark and
contains a lot of decomposed organic matter. He determines that
this kind of soil is found in _____topsoil____________
33. How are minerals carried from the A horizon to the B
horizon? Leaching
S6E6. Students will describe various sources of energy and
their uses and conservation.
34. When people practice conservation, they ___use their
resources wisely_____.
35. What can be burned to produce biomass? wood, garbage,
and organic material
36. List the energy resources that are used as alternatives to or
instead of fossil fuels.
Wind, solar, hydroelectric, nuclear,
biomass, geothermal energies
37. Places where magma is close to the Earth’s surface may be
suitable for generating what? Geothermal energy
38. I am used mainly in the western US. My energy comes from
the heat within the Earth. I can be used for home heating. Water
that is piped down to me is turned into steam to turn turbines
and generate energy. What am I? Geothermal energy
S6E6.b Identify renewable and nonrenewable resources.
39. A resource that after being used can be replaced in a short
amount of time is said to be what?
Renewable resources