Anatomy Midterm Review (Ms. Azua’s Class) 2009-2010 Midterm 1. What is homeostasis? 2. What is the main functions of each organ system? (I would make a list with the main functions as a review)Remember there are various organ systems: Reproductive, Urinary, Cardiovascular, Digestive, Endocrine, Lymphatic, Integumentary, Respiratory, Nervous, Muscular, and Skeletal. 3. List the main organs that are associated with each of the organ systems. 4. Anatomical position is exactly what? 5. What are the properties of water? How is water relevant to the body? 6. What is the octet rule? 7. What is a noble gas? 8. What are the four nucleotides found in DNA? What are their arrangements (what they combine with)? What is the difference between a pyrimidine and a purine? What is a codon? What is a nucleotide? What is a nucleic acid? 9. What is an enzymes function? What is a cofactor, what is a substrate? 10. Nucleic acids are composed of what units? 11. What are radioisotopes? 12. What are inorganic substances? 13. What are microfilaments? 14. What the functions of a cell membrane? 15. What are the differences between facilitated diffusion, osmosis, active transport, endocytosis, and exocytosis? 16. What are the cells organelles, what are they composed of, what are their functions, and where are they located within a cell? (Hint: Practice by drawing the cell, and by developing a chart for their functions). 17. What type of hormones exist in the body? What are the functions of the hormones that exist in the body? (Ex: protein hormones, steroid hormones, transport proteins, cholesterol, etc.) 18. What are the types of epithelium found in the body? Make a table with all th epithelium and list their function. 19. How do tissues change with age (as a person gets older)? 20. What is the meaning of dysplasia, anaplasia, necrosis, and metaplasia? 21. What are the three types of connective tissue? 22. What are the primary tissues? 23. Which one is a watery perspiration? Mucous, holocrine, serous, apocrine, or merocrine secretions. 24. What is granulation? 25. What is the function of keratinocytes? 26. The protein that stretches and recoils in the skin is __________. 27. What is the function of the arrector pili muscle? 28. Bone is composed of _____ percent of calcium. 29. What type of tissue composes the middle of diaphysis within the interior lining? 30. What does an osteon look like? 31. The ________ marrow is found between the trabeculae of spongy bone. 32. Fribrous connective tissue is called __________, and permits the skull growth of infants. 33. A dislocated jaw affects which two bone connections? 34. Which structure surrounds the pituitary gland? 35. The facial nerve passes through the ____________ foramen. 36. What does the styoloid process assist with? 37. Which bone is made of composite structure? 38. How can you tell an age –related event in the skeleton? 39. The shoulder joint stabilizes what? 40. What is the function of the intervertebral disks? 41. Ballerina pointing her shoes is an example of what type of movement: flexion, eversion, dorsiflexion, circumduction, plantar flexion, or inversion. 42. The muscle known as the diaphragm seperates the -________ from the ___________. 43. What are the characteristics of the endocrine system? 44. What is the study of the superficial form of an organism? 45. What is a hydrolysis reaction? 46. What is another name for a tumor? 47. _________ and ________ are two types of desmosomes. 48. Cartilage is separated from surrounding tissues by a fibrous ____________. 49. Why does the skin turn red when someone blushes? 50. Why does the skin turn blue (cyanosis)? 51. What is calcification? 52. The process that extends along the lateral border of the shaft of the humerus is the _____________. 53. What is the “rotator cuff”. 54. What element is the most abundant in the human body? 55. Tubulin is what in the human body? 56. Secretions discharged in the bodies surface provide _________, while those discharged into the surrounding fluid or blood act as ____. 57. Thin skin contains how many layers of keratinocytes? 58. The calvaria is formed by the ________ bones. 59. Which landmark along the ilium is an attachment site for large hip muscles? 60. An extension past the anatomical position is known as the ______________. 61. The study of life is what? 62. What is negative feedback? What is positive feedback? 63. Why does tissue become inflamed when hurt? 64. A cut parallel to the midsagittal plane produces what sort of section? 65. When homeostatic mechanisms fail, and invidual will experience the symptoms of _____________. 66. Electons whirl around the center of an atom at high speed forming a ____________. 67. Explain the role of water molecules in polysaccharide formation. 68. The -___________ typically consists of five or six flattend membranous discs called cisternae. 69. What are cells that are modified to transmit signals from place to another? 70. A thickened area of scar tissue is covered by a shiny, smooth epidermal surface known as the _______. 71. Depositing calcium into a bone is known as what? 72. The bony compartment that houses the brain is called _______. 73. In life, the _______ extends between the coccyx, the ischial tuberosities, and the inferior border of the pubic symphysis. 74. In _____ feedback the initial stimulus produces a response that escalates the stimulus. 75. Receptor molecules on the surface of the cell bind to specific molecules called _________. 76. Ions with positive charges are called _____________. 77. Epithelial cells produce secretions known as __________. 78. Successive vertebrae articulating at gliding joints between the ______ of the superior vertebrae and the _________ of the immediately adjacent inferior vertebrae. 79. The body edge of the true pelvis is called__________. 80. The movement of the body part downward is known as ____________. 81. What is a homeostatic regulation, and what is it of physiological importance? 82. Why is it life-threatening to have a high fever ? 83. What is themoregulation? How does it help during a heatstroke? 84.