Biology Semester 2 2014

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Biology Semester 2 Study Guide
Chapter 3
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o
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Definition of ecology
levels of life
types of ecological methods
Energy flow (one way flow=not recycled)
 Energy originates from the sun
 Levels within food chains/webs
o Cycles of matter (biogeochemical)
 Water
 Carbon
 Nitrogen
 Phosphorus
o Primary productivity in relation to limiting nutrients
Chapter 12
PEOPLE
 Griffith experiment= used mice to show transformation using 2 different bacteria
 Avery’s experiment= showed DNA was the genetic molecule by selectively destroyed other
components in a cell
 Hershey-Chase= used bacteriophages to show the DNA was the genetic molecule NOT protein
 Chargaff= discovered base pairing: A=T and G=C
 Watson-Crick (Franklin)= discovered the double helix shape of DNA
CHROMOSOMES
 DNA is coiled around histones (proteins) which are bunched together into packets called
nucleosomes. The nucleosomes are coiled and bunched together and form the Chromosome.
DNA replication
o Occurs in a 5’ to 3’ direction
o Leading strand in smooth sequence
o Lagging strand in Okazaki fragments
o Helicase unzips “ladder” between nitrogenous bases
o DNA polymerase adds nitrogenous bases
o Semiconservative model of replication
o Each new strand of DNA made consists an old original strand and a newly made
strand
Chapter 15
-Darwin: Galapagos Islands and “On the Origin of Species” -theorized that life came from
one common ancestor
-Hutton, Lyell, Lamarck, Malthus
-selective breeding, natural selection, survival of the fittest, vestigial organs, homologous
structures, fitness
-common genes= common ancestor
Chapter 16
 Mutations and gene shuffling create variation
 Gene pool in relation to allele frequencies
 3 types of natural selection on polygenic traits (disruptive, directional, and stabilizing)
 Genetic Drift
1. Founder effect and Bottleneck effect
 HW and 5 conditions that must be met
1. Random mating
2. Large Population
3. No Movement into or out of Population
4. No Mutations
5. No Natural Selection
 Speciation
1. Behavioral Isolation
2. Geographic isolation
3. Temporal isolation
Chapter 17
-Fossils
*Formation
*Examples
*Types
*Location relative to age
-Geologic Time Scale
Divisions
-Earth
*Many stages and changes
 Atmosphere
 Organisms
-Evolutions
-Endosymbiotic Theory
Chapter 18
-Binomial nomenclature
-classification order DKPCOFGS
-cladogram, derived characters, evolutionary classification
-Characteristics of Domains (Peptidoglycan)
Chapter 19- Bacteria and Viruses
Characteristics
Shapes
Reproductive Cycles
Structures
Gram Staining
Ecology roles
Illness
o Treatment, prevention, and causes
Chapter 21- Fungus
Feeding
Structure
Reproduction (general)
Lifecycle
Types/Phyla
Ecological Role
Symbiotic Relationships
Chapter 22- Plants
Characteristics
How do they make food
Evolution
o Types
o Traits
Importance of water
Reproduction
Life Cycle Terms
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