Chapter 16 Scaffold The Molecular Basis of Inheritance Section 16.1 Explain how DNA is structured to match each of its functions (replication and transcription). How did biologists discover that DNA was the hereditary molecule? Explain what each scientist did (big picture) and why it was important in discovering the structure and function of DNA. Section 16.2 Why would eukaryotic DNA have more origins of replication than prokaryotic DNA? Draw a picture showing why can DNA Polymerase only synthesizes a new strand in one direction. Why does one synthesizing strand only require 1 RNA primer, while the other synthesizing strand requires multiple RNA primers? Draw a picture of a replication fork in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell and label: Enzymes involved (and describe their function below the picture) Directions of replication Leading strand, lagging strand RNA primers and Okazaki fragments 5’ and 3’ ends of each strand (both the parent and new strands) What is the difference between proofreading and repair enzymes? Why can’t the 5’ end of a newly synthesized strand be fully completed? How does this relate to aging and cancer? 16.3 Why does DNA have to be packaged? What is the significance of histone proteins in the packaging of DNA in the nucleus of a cell?