Name: _________________________________________________________________ Mr. Shalaby Date: __________________________________________________________________ Collier High Period: ________________________________________________________________ Anthropology Key Aspects of Anthropology Ethnography • The systematic description of a particular culture based on _________________ observation. Research Approaches in the Four Fields • Anthropology has been called “the most humane of the sciences and the most scientific of the humanities” • Wide range of approaches that span: • Science (hypothesis, observation, and testing) • Humanities (more subjective, based on feeling) • Anthropology as a social science is empirical – based on observations rather than on intuition or faith • Fieldwork (being on location and fully immersed in another way of life) is a core methodological aspect of anthropology. Ethnography and Ethnology Summary ETHNOGRAPHY • means “culture ______________” • provides a first-hand, detailed description of a __________ culture • based on first-hand ____________ and research of one culture ETHNOLOGY • the study of __________ topic in more than one culture marriage forms, economic practices, religion, etc. • ___________ and cross-cultural • uses ethnographic material collected by a number of researchers Cultural Relativism vs. Ethnocentrism • Anthropology focus on cultural ___________ rather than _________________ • Cultural relativism is the belief that each culture must be understood in _____________ of its own ____________ and beliefs and not by the standards of another culture • Is the opposite of ethnocentrism • The belief that no culture is _______________ than any other culture • Is gained by _____________ to “other” ways with a sympathetic eye Anthropology focus on cultural relativism rather than ethnocentrism • Ethnocentrism is _____________ other cultures by the standards of one’s own culture rather than the standards of other cultures • The belief that one’s own culture is the way of life and that other ways of life are strange • and _______________. Absolute culture relativism versus Critical cultural relativism • Absolute cultural relativism says that whatever goes on in a particular culture must not be _______________ or ____________ because it would be ethnocentric to question any behavior or idea anywhere. Star Trek’s “Prime _____________”? No one shall interfere with the culture/cultural ______________ of another planet under any conditions • What are some challenges of absolute cultural relativism? Critical cultural relativism is an alternative to absolute cultural relativism Critical cultural relativism says that some of what goes on in a particular culture can be _____________ or changed because of an idea of a set of universal ______________ rights. What are some challenges of critical cultural relativism?