Psychology—Unit Four Study Guide Name ________________________ Page |1 Chapter 13 Section 1 1. Briefly summarize the four theories of motivation. 2. How do biological and psychological needs differ? 3. Why is the instinct theory not used to explain human motivation? Section 2 4. 5. 6. 7. What is the hunger drive? What is the relationship between heredity and obesity? How might dieting actually cause the body to resist efforts to lose weight? Why is knowledge of nutrition important as a strategy for weight loss? Section 3 8. 9. 10. 11. What are stimulus motives? Give two examples What is achievement motivation, and where does it come from? Why is sensory deprivation an important concept in the study of human motivation and emotion? How do the different theories of motivation explain why some people engage in high-risk behavior while other people prefer to avoid potentially dangerous situations? Section 4 12. 13. 14. 15. Identify three theories of emotion, and describe how each of the theories explains where emotions come from. How have photographs of faces been used to prove the universality of emotions? What term explains why a person might feel “on top of the world” one day and “down in the dumps” another day? List an example of the James-Lange and Cannon-Bard theories of emotion Psychology—Unit Four Study Guide Name ________________________ Page |2 Chapter 14 Section 1 1. List the main features of the trait theory of personality. 2. List the “big five” personality factors. 3. What are the limitations of the trait theory? Section 2 4. 5. 6. 7. Trace the impact of Freud’s theory. How do the psychoanalytic theories of Jung and Horney disagree with the theories presented by Freud? In what ways has the psychoanalytic theory of personality been modified since Freud? Describe Erikson’s stages of psychosocial development. Section 3 8. According to behaviorism, what is the main influence on how people act? 9. Many students strive to get good grades. How would social-learning theorists explain the behavior? How would behaviorists explain it? 10. Do you agree with the behaviorist view that true personal freedom does not exist? Why or why not? Section 4 11. 12. 13. 14. Summarize Roger’s concept of congruence. Trace the impact of humanism no current thinking in psychology. According to the humanistic approach, what is the role of self and free choice in shaping human behavior? How is congruence related to a person’s self concept? Section 5 15. Explain the difference between individualism and collectivist perspectives on personality. 16. What is acculturation and how can it affect self-esteem? 17. According to the sociocultural approach, what role doe ethnicity, gender, culture, and socioeconomic status play in the development of personality? 18. What are examples of behaviors that would indicate whether a person is more individualistic or collectivistic?