Chapter 2 Review Sheet Answers

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Chapter 2 Review Sheet
2.1 – Atoms, Ions & Molecules
1. The three parts of an atom?
2. All matter is composed of these?
3. Where protons and neutrons are found in an atom?
4. Where electrons are found in an atom?
5. When atoms share electrons?
6. When electrons are exchanged between atoms (one takes
and one accepts)?
7. How does an ionic bond form?
8. A substance containing only one type of atom?
2.2 Properties of Water
9. Water is a ________ molecule because the oxygen atom
carries a slight _______ charge, while the hydrogen atoms carry
a slight ________ charge.
10. What do you call the attraction between the hydrogen of
one water molecule and the oxygen of another?
11. Draw two water molecules, illustrating #10
Format:
27 M/C
11 Completion
4 Short Answer
50 PTS TOTAL
What to Study:
Ch 2 Notepacket
Ch 2 SG
Macromolecule Review Sheet
Quizzes
This Sheet 
Answers
PROTON, NEUTRON, ELECTRON
ATOMS
NUCLEUS
SURROUNDING THE NUCLEUS,
ORBITAL, ELECTRON CLOUD
COVALENT BOND
IONIC BOND
ATTRACTION OF OPPOSITELY CHARGED
IONS TO ONE ANOTHER
ELEMENT
a. POLAR
b. NEGATIVE
c. POSITIVE
HYDROGEN BOND
H BOND
HYDROGEN BOND
12. Where do you find Acids on the pH scale?
BELOW 7
13. Where do you find Bases on the pH scale?
ABOVE 7
14. List the four unique properties of water, describe them.
WATER IS A POLAR MOLECULE
ICE FLOATS
COHESION
ADHESION
HEATS AND COOLS SLOWLY
NONPOLAR – LIKE LIPIDS
COHESION
15. What substances do not dissolve easily in water?
16. What do you call water molecules sticking to other WATER
molecules?
17. Because water is polar, it can make hydrogen bonds with
other _________ molecules (a phenomenon known as
cohesion)
18. This is the most common solvent in cells
WATER
WATER
2.3 Carbon Based Molecules
19. In order to be considered organic, a molecule must contain
this element
CARBON
20. How many electrons does carbon have in its outermost
energy level?
21. Molecules that are long chains and large rings can be made
in cells because carbon loves to bond with what?
22. What kind of covalent bonds can carbon make with other
atoms?
23. The formation of polymers from monomers occurs as a
result of this type of reaction
24. The breakdown of polymers into smaller monomers occurs
as a result of this type of reaction
25. What are the four families of macromolecules
4
OTHER CARBON ATOMS
26. Give examples of carbohydrates
Non-polar covalent bonds
SINGLE, DOUBLE, OR TRIPLE
DEHYDRATION SYNTHESIS (REMOVING
WATER TO MAKE)
HYDROLYSIS (ADDING WATER TO
BREAK)
CARBOHYDRATES
LIPIDS
PROTEINS
NUCLEIC ACIDS
SUGARS AND STARCHES
27. How do plants store glucose? (a molecule)
STARCH
28. How do you store glucose? (a molecule)
GLYCOGEN
29. Give examples of lipids
FATS. OILS, WAXES AND
PHOSPHOLIPIDS
PROTEINS
30. Where would you find long chains of amino acids, linked by
peptide bonds?
31. What piece of an amino acid makes it unique from other
amino acids?
32. Give examples of nucleic acids
33. What is the function of DNA?
R GROUP/VARIABLE GROUP
(20 different)
DNA AND RNA
STORE AND TRANSMIT GENETIC INFO
2.4 Chemical Reactions
34. In a chemical reaction, these are the substances that get
REACTANTS
changed (the “ingredients”)
35. In a chemical reaction, these are the new substances
PRODUCTS
formed
36. The amount of energy needed to initiate a chemical reaction ACTIVATION ENERGY
37. These reactions absorb energy overall. Draw a picture of
the energy of this reaction.
ENDOTHERMIC RXN
38. These reactions release energy overall. Draw a picture of
the energy of this reaction.
EXOTHERMIC RXN
2.5 Enzymes
39. Without these, the chemical reactions in your cells would
occur too slowly to support life’s processes.
40. Reactants in an enzyme-catalyzed reaction are called:
41. What is the name of the place on an enzyme where the
substrate binds?
42. List two factors that can impact the activity of an enzyme
43. If any of your answers to # 42 above changes too
drastically, what happens to the enzyme?
44. Draw a graph comparing the energy pathways of a reaction
without an enzyme and one with an enzyme.
ENZYMES
SUBSTRATES
ACTIVE SITE
TEMP
pH
DENATURE; CHANGE SHAPE AND
THEREFORE ALTER THE FUNCTION
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