Chapter 12 The Respiratory System-Dr. Alex

Obstructive Atelectasis
Compression Atelectasis
Chapter 12 The Respiratory
System-Dr. Alex Systems III
Chapter Outline
Clinical Features of Pneumonia
The chapter outline provides you with an
organizational guide to the topics and ideas
presented in this chapter on the powerpoint.
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)
Oxygen Delivery: A Cooperative Effort
Course of a Tuberculous Infection
Structure and Function of the Lungs
Bronchi, Bronchioles, and Alveoli
Miliary Tuberculosis and Tuberculous
Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis
Gas Exchange
Diagnosis and Treatment of Tuberculosis
Pulmonary Function Tests
Bronchitis and Bronchiectasis
The Pleural Cavity
Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease
Derangements of Pulmonary Structure and
Classification of Pneumonia
Pneumocystis Pneumonia
Pathogenesis of Emphysema
Prevention and Treatment of Emphysema
Emphysema as a Result of Alpha-1 Antitrypsin
Bronchial Asthma
Respiratory Distress Syndrome
Respiratory Distress Syndrome of Newborn
Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome
Pulmonary Fibrosis
Lung Carcinoma
Study Questions
Key Terms (1-5)
The following questions are provided as a test Define the following terms:
for comprehension and as a study guide for use 1. Miliary tuberculosis
with the PPT chapters.
2. Pulmonary fibrosis
3. Pneumothorax
4. Pulmonary emphysema
5. Pneumonia
Fill-in-the-Blank (1-18)
5. The agent that causes severe acute respiratory
syndrome (SARS) is _______________.
1. Movement of air in and out of the lungs is
called _______________, and movement of
oxygen and carbon dioxide between alveoli and
pulmonary capillaries is called
6. Primary atypical pneumonia is caused by
2. Escape of air from the lung associated with
collapse of the lung is called a
8. The skin test that detects hypersensitivity to
the antigens in the tubercle bacillus as an
indication of previous exposure to the organism
is called the _______________test.
7. The characteristic multinucleated cell
associated with the necrosis in tuberculosis is
called a _______________.
3. Development of a positive (higher than
9. Deficiency of surfactant in the lungs of
atmospheric) pressure in the pleural cavity
associated with collapse of the lung is called a premature infants leads to a condition called
_______________ and this condition is treated _______________.
4. Collapse of part of the lung caused by
obstruction of bronchi or bronchioles with
absorption of the trapped air into the
bloodstream is called _______________.
15. The incidence of pulmonary emphysema is
10. The condition characterized by breathing
difficulty caused by bronchospasm is called
16. _______________is the major factor
responsible for the rising incidence of lung
carcinoma in women.
11. Progressive pulmonary fibrosis caused by
inhalation of rock dust is called
17. _______________is a condition
characterized by chronic inflammation with
dilation of bronchi.
12. Pulmonary fibrosis caused by inhalation of 18. Inhalation of a foreign body in the lung may
cause _______________.
asbestos fibers is called _______________.
13. The disease caused by exposure to asbestos
fibers may predispose a person to development
of malignant lung and pleural tumors. The lung
tumor is called a _______________, and the
pleural tumor is called a _______________.
14. The disease characterized by chronic
bronchitis associated with breakdown of alveolar
septa, formation of cystic spaces throughout the
lung, and loss of lung elasticity is called
True/False (1-3)
1. Tell whether each statement is true or false 2. Tell whether each statement is true or false
regarding the severe acute respiratory syndrome regarding the treatment of emphysema by lung
(SARS). If false, explain why the statement is volume reduction surgery (LVRS). If false,
explain why the statement is incorrect.
1a. This highly communicable disease is caused 2a. LVRS may be suitable for some patients who
by an unusual coronavirus. ______________ have emphysema restricted to the upper lobes of
the lungs.________________
1b. The virus can be transmitted by coughing and
sneezing and by the virus-contaminated hands of
an infected patient._______________________
1c. The virus responds to antiviral
2b. LVRS involves resecting segments of
emphysematous upper lobes in an effort to
1d. The lungs of severely affected SARS patients reduce the size of the overinflated lungs so that
the less severely affected lower lobes can
develop features characteristic of adult
function more efficiently.__________________
respiratory distress
syndrome.______________________________ 2c. The mortality rate for medically treated
patients with emphysema is similar to the
mortality rate for surgically treated patients.
2d. Surgical treatment is much more effective
than medical treatment in almost all emphysema
3c. Lung volume reduction surgery is a very
3. Tell whether each statement is true or false. If effective treatment of severe pulmonary
false, explain why the statement is incorrect.
emphysema and provides long-term
a. Infants born to mothers with diabetes are at
increased risk of developing the neonatal
respiratory distress
b. Infants delivered by cesarean section are at
greater risk of neonatal respiratory distress
syndrome than are infants delivered
improvement of the disease.
3d. Immunocompromised persons who become
infected with the tubercle bacillus
(Mycobacterium tuberculosis) are at a greater
risk of developing active progressive pulmonary
tuberculosis than are persons with a normal
immune system. ______________
3e. Lung carcinoma is responsible for more
deaths in women than breast carcinoma.
Identification (1)
1. List three conditions that appear to be related
to cigarette smoking.
______________________________________ ______________________________________
Discussion Questions (1-15)
1. How do the lungs function?
2. What is the difference between ventilation and
gas exchange? _____
3. How is pulmonary function disturbed if the
alveolar septa are thickened and scarred?
4. How is pneumonia classified? What are its
major clinical features? ____________
8. What type of inflammation is caused by the
tubercle bacillus? ____________
5. How does the tubercle bacillus differ in its
staining reaction from other bacteria?
6. What factors determine the outcome of a
tuberculous infection? ________________
9. A patient has tuberculosis of the kidney, but
no evidence of pulmonary tuberculosis is
detected by means of a chest x-ray. How did this
happen? _________________
10. What is meant by the term “inactive
tuberculosis”? Under what circumstances may
7. How does a cavity develop in lungs infected an old, inactive tuberculous infection become
with tuberculosis? Is a person with a tuberculous activated? What types of patients are susceptible
cavity infectious to other people? _________ to reactivation of a tuberculous infection?
11. How does a pneumothorax occur? What is its
effect on pulmonary function? ______________
12. What factors predispose a person to the
development of pulmonary emphysema? How
may it be prevented? _________________
14. A postoperative patient with a normal
temperature has a pulmonary infiltrate, chest
pain, and bloody sputum. What is the most likely
diagnosis? ____________
13. A 35-year-old man has a pulmonary infiltrate
15. What is the cause of interstitial pneumonia
with chills, fever, chest pain, and purulent
(primary atypical pneumonia)? ___________
sputum. What is the most likely diagnosis?