Peace and Security Annotated Bibliography
Monographs and Journals .................................................................................................................................. 1
Peacekeeping Operations .................................................................................................................................. 4
Asia Pacific .......................................................................................................................................................... 4
Middle East ......................................................................................................................................................... 6
Africa ..................................................................................................................................................................... 8
Eastern Europe............................................................................................................................................... 10
Latin American and the Caribbean ......................................................................................................... 11
Online Sources .................................................................................................................................................... 12
Monographs and Journals
Tony Addison From conflict to recovery in Africa Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003.
Muthiah Alagappa International security management and the UN Tokyo: UN University Press, 1999.
This academic work addresses the role of the United Nations in the international security
environment of the post-Cold War era and what potential advantage the UN may have over other
James H. Allan Peacekeeping: outspoken observations by a field officer Westport, CT: Praeger, 1996.
Mats Berdal and Spyros Economides United Nations interventionism, 1991-2004 Cambridge:
Cambridge UP, 2007.
Eric G. Berman and Katie E. Sams Peacekeeping in Africa: capabilities and culpabilities Geneva: UN
Institute for Disarmament Research, 2000.
Jane Boulden Dealing with conflict in Africa: the United Nations and regional organizations New
York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003.
Susan Burgerman Moral victories: how activists provoke multilateral action Ithaca: Cornell
University Press, 2001.
Giuseppe Caforio and Gerhard Kummel Military missions and their implications reconsidered: the
aftermath of September 11th Boston: Elsevier, 2005.
Demetrios J. Caraley The new American interventionism: lessons from successes and failures New
York: Columbia University Press, 1999.
Andrew Clapham The Human Rights Obligation of Non-State Actors Oxford University Press, 2006.
This new book examines the legal protection of human rights in situations where the threats to the
enjoyment of human rights come from non-state actors rather than directly from state agents. Such
an application of human rights law to the private sphere has implications for the ways in which we
conceive human rights generally
Simon Chesterman You, the people: the United Nations, transitional administration, and statebuilding Oxford: Oxford UP, 2004.
Katherine P. Coleman International organizations and peace enforcement: the politics of
international legitimacy Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2007.
Alex Conte Security in the 21st century: the United Nations, Afghanistan, and Iraq Burlington: Ashgae,
Richard H. Cooper and Juliette Voïnov Kohler, The responsibility to protect: the global moral compact
for the 21st century New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008.
This collection of essays presents perspectives on the right to protect, the international relations
concept advocating that the international community has a responsibility to intervene to preempt
genocide or a humanitarian crisis. This work advocates for the potential and benefits that may
accrue from R2P.
David Cortright, George A. Lopez, et al. The sanctions decade: assessing UN strategist in the 1990s
Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2000.
Peter G. Danchin and Horst Fischer United Nations reform and the new collective security Cambridge:
Cambridge UP, 2010.
Juergen Dedring The United Nations Security Council in the 1990s: resurgence and renewal Albany:
State University of New York Press, 2008.
Paul F. Diehl International Peacekeeping Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1994.
In Diehl’s study of UN peacekeeping operations, he argues that UN operations have mostly failed
due to potential impediments that a peacekeeping force might pose to a peace process (e.g. the
presence of forces reducing the desire for conflict resolution). Examples of conflicts profiled
include: UNEF, Somalia, Cambodia, and Yugoslavia.
James Dobbins et al. The UN’s role in nation building: from the Congo to Iraq Santa Monica: Rand,
Michael W. Doyle and Nicholas Sambanis Making war and building peace: United Nations peace
operations. Princeton: Princeton UP, 2006.
Mark Duffield, “Governing the Borderlands: Decoding the power of Aid”, in Disasters 25 (4), 308320, 2001.
This article examines aid practice, that is, the public-private contractual networks that link donor
governments, UN agencies, and military establishments, NGOs, private companies and others, as a
relation of global liberal governance. In order to fulfill this function, such networks embody what
could be called the 'securitization' of international assistance. Based upon ideas of human security
and ameliorating the effects of poverty and vulnerability reduction, aid is now seen as playing a
direct security role.
William J. Durch UN peacekeeping, American politics, and the uncivil wars of the 1990s New York: St.
Martin’s Press, 1996
Kristen Eichensehr and W. Michael Reisman Stopping wars and making peace: studies in
international intervention Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff Press, 2009.
Bernard J. Firestone The United Nations under U Thant, 1961-1971 Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press,
Christine Gray International law and the use of force Oxford: Oxford UP, 2008.
Heiner Hanggi and Vincenza Scherrer Security sector reform and UN integrated missions: experience
from Burundi, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Haiti, and Kosovo London: Global, 2008.
Paul Higate Gender and peacekeeping: case studies: the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Sierra
Leone Pretoria: Institute for Security Studies, 2004.
Paul Higate and Marsha Henry Insecure spaces: peacekeeping, power and performance in Haiti,
Kosovo and Liberia New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009.
Tor Tanke Holm and Espen Barth Eide Peacebuilding and police reform London: Frank Cass, 2000.
Paul Kennedy The Parliament of Man: Peacekeeping and War making New York: Random House,
Jean Krasno, Bradd C. Hayes, and Donald C.F. Daniel. Leveraging for success in United Nations peace
operations Westport: Praeger, 2003.
Adam LeBor Complicity with evil: the United Nations in the age of modern genocide. New Haven: Yale
University Press, 2006.
Ingrid A. Lehmann Peacekeeping and public information: caught in the crossfire London: F. Cass,
Chandra Lekha Sriram and Karin Wermester From promise to practice: strengthening UN capacities
for the prevention of violent conflict Boulder: L. Rienner Publishers, 2003.
Edward Luck UN Security Council: Practice and Promise London: Routledge, 2006.
David M. Malone The UN Security Council: from the Cold War to the 21st century Boulder: Lynne
Rienner, 2004.
James Mayall The New interventionism, 1991-1994: United Nations experience in Cambodia, former
Yugoslavia, and Somalia Cambridge: Cambridge, UK, 1996.
Sarah Meharg and Aleisha Arnusch Security sector reform: a case study approach to transition and
capacity building Carlisle, PA: US Army War College, 2010.
Mike Moriarity An Irish soldier’s diaries Cork: Mercier, 2010.
Hitoshi Nasu International law on peacekeeping: a study of article 40 of the UN charter Leiden:
Martinus Nijhoff, 2009.
Edward Newman, Roland Paris, and Oliver P. Richmond New perspectives on liberal peace building
New York: United Nations University Press, 2009.
Manfred Nowak Introduction to the international human rights regime Boston: Brill Academic
Publishers, 2003.
SCM Paine Nation building, state building, and economic development: case studies and comparison
New York: ME Sharpe, 2010.
Ramesh Thakur The United Nations, Peace and Security: From Collective Security to the Responsibility
to Protect Cambridge University Press, 2006
Paul van Tongeren, Hans van de Veen, and Juliette Verhoeven (editors) Searching for peace in
Europe and Eurasia: an overview of conflict prevention and peace building activities Boulder: Lynne
Rienner Publishers, 2002.
Teresa Whitfield Friends indeed? The United Nations, Groups of Friends, and the Resolution of
Conflicts Washington: United States Institute of Peace, 2007.
Siobhan Wills Protecting civilians: the obligations of peacekeepers Oxford: Oxford UP, 2009.
Thomas G. Weiss et al. The United Nations and changing world politics Boulder: Westview Press,
Adrian Wood, Raymond Apthorpe, and John Borton Evaluating international humanitarian action:
reflections from practitioners New York: Palgrave, 2001.
Ralph Zacklin The United Nations Secretariat and the use of force in a unipolar world: power v.
principle Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2010.
Laura Zanotti Governing disorder: UN peace operations, international security, and democratization
in the post-Cold War era University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State UP, 2011.
Ralph Zacklin The United Nations Secretariat and the use of force in a unipolar world: power v.
principle Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2010.
Peacekeeping Operations
Asia Pacific
Good Offices Mission in Afghanistan and Pakistan (UNGOMAP)
Phillip Corwin Doomed in Afghanistan: a UN officer’s memoir of the fall of Kabul and Najibullah’s
failed escape New Brunswick: Rutgers UP, 2003.
Mohammad Khalid Ma’aroof United Nations and Afghanistan crisis New Delhi: Commonwealth
Publishers, 1990.
UNDP Afghanistan’s New Beginnings Programme Kabul: UNDP Afghanistan, 2006.
Advance Mission in Cambodia (UNAMIC)
Ramses Amer, Johan Saravanamuttu, and Peter Wallensteen The Cambodian Conflict, 1979-1991:
from intervention to resolution Uppsala, Sweden: Uppsala University, 1996.
Michael W. Doyle UN peacekeeping in Cambodia: UNTAC’s civil mandate Boulder: Lynne Rienner
Publishers, 1995.
Trevor Findlay Cambodia: the legacy and lessons of UNTAC Oxford: Oxford UP, 1995.
Steve Heder and Judy Ledgerwood (editors) Propaganda, politics, and violence in Cambodia:
democratic transition under United Nations peacekeeping Armonk, NY: ME Sharpe, 1996.
Caroline Hughes UNTAC in Cambodia: the impact on human rights Singapore: Institute of Southeast
Asian Studies, 1996.
Institute of Policy Studies (IPS) of Singapore and the United Nations Institute for Training and
Research (UNITAR) The United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia (UNTAC) London:
Kluwer Law International, 1995.
Zhou Mei Radio UNTAC of Cambodia: winning ears, hearts, and minds Bangkok: White Lotus, 1994.
Boraden Nhem A continuation of politics by other means: the “politics” of a peacekeeping mission in
Cambodia (1992-1993) Carlise, PA: US Army War College, 2011.
Departing from conventional wisdom, which addresses factors such as mandates, spoilers, which
ignores political factors, the author explores the Cambodian conflict and peace operations as a
complex and interactive situation in which local political conditions were paramount and directly
challenged UN peacekeeping principles of neutrality. He observes that UN peacekeeping missions
can be too tied to theory and doctrine while ignoring reality, and argues for missions that
understand the inherent complexity of peacekeeping, recognize emerging realities, and adapt
Sorpong Peou Conflict neutralization in the Cambodia war: from battlefield to ballot box Kuala
Lumpur: Oxford UP, 1997.
Tom Riddle Cambodian interlude: inside the United Nations’ 1993 election Bangkok: White Orchid
Press, 1997.
Security Force in West New Guinea (UNSF)
Nonie Sharp The rule of the sword: the story of West Irian Malmsbury, Victoria, Australia: Kibble
Books, 1977.
Transitional Administration in East Timor (UNTAET)
Bob Breen Mission accomplished, East Timor St. Leonard’s: Allen and Unwin, 2000.
Geoffrey C. Gunn and Reyko Huang New nation: United Nations peace-building in East Timor
Nagasaki: G.C. Gunn, 2006.
Jaime S. de los Santos and Arnulfo Marcelo B. Burgos, Jr. Restoring hope: peacekeeping the East
Timor experience Quezon City: AM Cleofe Prints, 2001.
David Savage Dancing with the devil: a personal account of policing the East Timor vote for
independence Clayton: Monash Asia Institute, 2002.
Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus (UNFICYP)
Jan Asmussen Cyprus at war: diplomacy and conflict during the 1974 crisis New York: IB Tauris,
Neil Briscoe Britain and UN peacekeeping, 1948-67 New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003.
Brigadier Francis Henn A business of some heat: the United Nations force in Cyprus before and during
the 1974 Turkish Invasion Yorkshire: Pen & Sword, 2004.
Joseph S. Joseph Cyprus: ethnic conflict and international politics New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1997.
Zaim M. Necatigil The Cyprus question and the Turkish position in international law Oxford: Oxford
UP, 1989.
Oliver P. Richmond and James Ker-Lindsay (editors) The work of the UN in Cyprus: promoting peace
and development New York: Palgrave, 2001.
H. Ibrahim Salih Cyprus: ethnic political counterpoints Dallas: University Press of America, 2004.
Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan (UNMOGIP)
Pauline Dawson the peacekeepers of Kashmir: the UN Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan
New York: St. Martin's Press, 1994.
Bernard J. Firestone The United Nations under U Thant, 1961-1971 Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press,
Abdul Sattar Pakistan’s Foreign Policy 1947-2005 Karachi: Oxford UP, 2007.
Arun Kumar Singh UN Security Council and Indo-Pak conflicts Delhi: Capital Publishing House, 1992.
Robert G. Wirsing India, Pakistan, and the Kashmir Dispute: on regional conflict and its resolution
New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1994.
Middle East
UN Emergency Force II: Arab-Israeli Conflict/Lebanon
Michael K. Carroll Pearson's peacekeepers: Canada and the United Nations Emergency Force, 1956-67
Vancouver: UBC Press, 2009.
Emmanuel A. Erskine Mission with UNIFIL: an African soldier’s reflections London: Hurst, 1989.
Commandant Dan Harvey Peacekeepers: Irish soldiers in the Lebanon Dublin: Merlin Publishing,
Marianne Heiberg Peacekeepers and local populations: some comments on UNIFIL Oslo: Norsk
Utenrikspolitisk Institutt, 1988.
Nand Lal From collective security to peacekeeping: a study of India's contribution to the United
Nations Emergency Force, 1956-67 Calcutta: Minerva Associates, 1975.
Walter Laqueur and Barry Rubin (editors) The Israel-Arab reader: a documentary history of the
Middle East conflict New York: Penguin Books, 1995.
M. Abdel-Latif Zeidan The United Nations Emergency Force 1956-1967 Stockholm: Almqvist &
Wiksell International, 1976.
Elihu Lauterpacht (compiler) The United Nations Emergency Force; basic documents New York,
Praeger, 1960
David Lea A survey of Arab-Israeli relations, 1947-2001London: Europa, 2002.
Anthony McDermoot & Kjell Skjelsaek (eds.) A Thankless task: the role of UNIFIL in Southern
Lebanon. Oslo: Norsk Utenrikspolitisk Institutt, 1988.
Henry McDonald Irishbatt: the story of Ireland’s blue berets in the Lebanon Dublin: Gill & Macmillan,
A.G. Mezerik (editor) The United Nations emergency force (UNEF): precedents, creation, evolution
New York: International Review Service, 1957.
Brendan O’Shea (editor) In the service of peace: memories of Lebanon from the pages of A Cosantóir
Cork: Mercier Press, 2001.
Indar Rikhve The Sinai Blunder: withdrawal of the United Nations Emergency Force leading to the Six
Day War, June 1967 New Delhi: Oxford & IBH, 1978.
Gabriella Rosner The United Nations Emergency Force New York, Columbia University Press, 1963
Bjørn Skogmo UNIFIL: international peacekeeping in Lebanon, 1978-1988 Boulder: L. Rienner
Publishers, 1989.
Nils Sköld United Nations peacekeeping after the Suez War: UNEF I, the Swedish involvementNew
York: St. Martin’s Press, 1996.
UN, United Nations Emergency Force: the first six months New York: United Nations Office of Public
Information, 1974.
Ron de Vos Patrol to the north border of Israel: Lebanon through a UN soldier’s eyes Valkenburg aan
de Geul: Lemmens, 2007.
W. Van der Wolf and C. Tofan (editors) The United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon Nijmegen: Wolf
Legal Publishers, 2010.
Iran-Iraq Military Observer Group (UNIIMOG)
James H. Allan Peacekeeping: outspoken observations by a field officer Wesport: Praeger, 1996.
David M. Malone The international struggle over Iraq: politics in the UN Security Council, 1980-2005.
New York: Oxford University Press, 2006.
Iraq-Kuwait Observation Mission (UNIKOM)
Ian Johnstone Aftermath of the Gulf War: an assessment of UN action Boulder: L. Rienner
Publishers, 1994.
Hans Koechler (editor) The Iraq crisis and the United Nations: power politics vs. the international rule
of law Vienna: International Progress Organization, 2004.
Paul Taylor and AJR Groom The United Nations and the Gulf War, 1990-1991: back to the future?
London: Royal Institute of International Affairs, 1992.
Yemen Observation Mission (UNYOM)
Peter Hinchcliffe, John T. Ducker and Maria Holt Without Glory in Arabia: the British Retreat from
Aden New York: I.B. Tauris, 2006
UN Transition Assistance Group in present-day Namibia (UNTAG)
Cedric Thornberry The UNTAG experience in Namibia: first phase Braamfontein, South Africa: South
African Institute of International Affairs, 1990.
Operation in Mozambique (ONUMOZ)
Stephen Chan and Moisés Venâncio War and peace in Mozambique New York: St. Martin’s Press,
UN and government of Mozambique The Emergency situation in Mozambique: priority requirements
for the period 1990-1991 New York: United Nations, 1990.
Observer Mission in Liberia (UNOMIL)
Abiodun Alao The burden of collective goodwill: the international involvement in the Liberian Civil
War Brookfield, Vermont: Ashgate, 1998.
Abiodun Alao, John Mackinlay, and Funmi Olonisakin Peacekeepers, politicians, and warlords: the
Liberian peace process New York: United Nations University Press, 1999.
Mission in Sierra Leone (UNAMSIL)
Chima Ekeator Battalion 7: a compelling story about the road to peace in Sierra Leone Ibadan,
Nigeria: Spectrum Books Limited, 2007.
Mark Malan et al. Sierra Leone: building the road to recovery Pretoria: Institute for Security Studies,
Mark Malan, Phenvo Rakate, and Angela McIntyre Peacekeeping in Sierra Leone: UNAMSIL hits the
home straight Pretoria: Institute for Security Studies, 2002.
Funmi Olonisakin Peacekeeping in Sierra Leone: the story of UNAMSIL Boulder: Lynne Rienner
Publishers, 2008.
J. Peter Pham The Sierra Leonean tragedy: history and global dimensions New York: Nova Science
Publishers, 2006.
Operation in Congo (ONUC)
Georges Abi-Saab The United Nations operation in the Congo, 1960-1964 Oxford: Oxford UP, 1978.
Neil Briscoe Britain and UN peacekeeping, 1948-1967 New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003.
Dietrich Franke ONUC in Katanga - a model of self-defense or enforcement? Harvard Law School
Thesis Cambridge: Harvard Law School, April 1970.
Peter B. Heller The United Nations under Dag Hammarskjöld, 1953-1961 Lanham, Md. : Scarecrow
Press, 2001
Ernset W. Lefever Uncertain mandate: politics of the UN Congo Operation Baltimore: Johns Hopkins
Press, 1967.
George Martelli Experiment in world government: an account of the United Nations operation in the
Congo, 1960-1964 London: Johnson Publications, 1966.
Edgar O'Balance The Congo-Zaire experience, 1960-98 New York: St. Martin's Press, 2000
Kevin A. Spooner Canada, the Congo Crisis, and UN Peacekeeping, 1960-1964 Vancouver: UBC Press,
UN United Nations operation in the Congo: report on civilian operations in 1963 New York: United
Nations, 1964.
Assistance Mission for Rwanda (UNAMIR)
African Rights Left to die at ETO and Nyanza: the stories of Rwandese civilians abandoned by UN
troops on 11 April 1994 London: African Rights, 2001.
John A. Berry and Carol Pott Berry (editors) Genocide in Rwanda: a collective memory Washington:
Howard University Press, 1999.
Liz Hughes UNV programme, UNAMI, Rwanda, June 1995 Rwanda: UNAMIR, 1995.
Scott R. Feil Preventing genocide: how the early use of force might have succeeded in Rwanda
Washington: Carnegie Commission on Preventing Deadly Conflict, 1998.
Shaharyar M. Khan The shallow graves of Rwanda New York: IB Tauris Publishers, 2000.
Johan Pottier Re-imagining Rwanda: Conflict, Survival and Disinformation in the late Twentieth
Century 2002
Alan J. Kuperman The limits of humanitarian intervention: genocide in Rwanda Washington:
Brookings Institution Press, 2001.
Henry Kwami Anyidoho Guns over Kigali: the Rwandese Civil War, 1994 Accra: Woeli Publishing
Services, 1997.
Operation in Burundi ONUB
Henri Boshoff, Waldemary Very, and George Rautenbach The Burundi peace process: from civil war
to conditional peace Pretoria: institute for Security Studies, 2010.
Eastern Europe
Observer Mission in Georgia (UNOMIG)
UN The United Nations and the situation in Georgia UN Department of Public Information, 1995.
Protection Force in former Yugoslavia (UNPROFOR)
Wolfgang Biermann and Martin Vadset (editors) UN peacekeeping in trouble: lessons learned from
the former Yugoslavia Burlington, Vermont: Ashgate, 1998.
Richard Caplan Post-mortem on UNPROFOR London: Brassey’s for the Centre for Defence Studies,
Åge Eknes Blue helmets in a blown mission: UNPROFOR in former Yugoslavia Oslo: Norwegian
Institute of International Affairs, 1993.
Frederick H. Fleitz Jr. Peacekeeping fiascoes of the 1990s: causes, solutions, and US interests
Wesport: Praeger, 2002.
Ramesh Thakur and Albrecht Schnabel (editors) United Nations peacekeeping operations: ad hoc
missions, permanent engagements New York: United Nations University Press, 2001.
Confidence Restoration Operation in Croatia (UNCRO)
Dawn M. Hewitt From Ottawa to Sarajevo: Canadian peacekeepers in the Balkan Kingston, Ontario:
Queen’s University, 1998.
James D. Smith Canada in Croatia: peacekeeping and UN reform- the view from the ground Surrey:
Strategic and Combat Studies Institute, 1995.
Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK)
Amnesty International Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Kosovo) Setting the standard: UNMIK and
KFOR's response to the violence in Mitrovica London: International Secretariat, 2000.
Tonny Brems Knudsen and Carsten Bagge Lausten (editors) Kosovo between war and peace:
nationalism, peacebuilding and international trusteeship London: Routledge, 2006.
Peter Siani-Davies (editor) International intervention in the Balkans since 1995 London: Routledge,
W. Van der Wolf (editor) The Kosovo crisis: facts, figures, and documents Nijmegen: Global Law
Association, 1999.
Latin American and the Caribbean
Mission of the Representative of the SG in the Dominican Republic (DOMREP)
Max Harrelson Fires all around the horizon: the UN’s uphill battle to preserve the peace New York:
Praeger, 1989.
Indar Jit Rikhye Trumpets and tumults: the memoirs of a peacekeeper Delhi: Manohar, 2002.
Mission in Haiti (UNMIH)
John T. Fishel and Andres Saenz (editors) Capacity building for peacekeeping: the case of Haiti
Washington: National Defense UP, 2007.
Eduardo Aldunate Herman Backpacks full of hope: the UN mission in Haiti Waterloo, Ontario: Centre
for International Innovation, 2010.
Ralph Pezzullo Plunging into Haiti: Clinton, Aristide, and the defeat of diplomacy Jackson: UP of
Mississippi, 2006.
Yasmine Shamsic and Andrew S. Thompson (editors) Haiti: hope for a fragile state Waterloo,
Ontario: Wilfrid Laurier UP, 2006.
Observer Group in Central America –Nicaragua (ONUCA)
Jack Child The Central American peace process, 1983-1991: sheathing swords, building confidence
Boulder: L. Rienner Publishers, 1992.
Verification Mission in Guatemala (MINUGUA)
Susanne Jonas Of centaurs and doves: Guatemala’s peace process Boulder: Westview Press, 2000.
UN Status of the commitments of the peace agreements relating to the armed forces Guatemala City:
MINUGUA, 2002.
UN The Guatemala peace agreements New York: United Nations, 1998.
Online Sources
UN Peacekeeping Main Website
The main site for United Nations peacekeeping, this site includes primers for all present and pass
peacekeeping operations, including newsbreaks for operations involving UN peacekeepers. The site
is absolutely essential for researchers trying to understand the political and military background of
all UN operations.
The Brahimi Report
The famous Brahimi Report, or its official name “Report of the panel on United Nations Peace
Operations,” was an October 2000 report that criticized the conduct of UN peacekeeping
operations. Identifying the problems related to the organization and deployment of UN forces, the
Brahimi Report provided a series of recommendations for modernizing and streamlining UN
operations. This report, as a result, has become a critical part in the debate over how to bring
peacekeeping into the 21st century.
The United Nations and Peacekeeping in Africa
An article from 1999 on UN peacekeeping in Africa provides an analysis of the success or failure of
peacekeeping operations in countries such as Mozambique, Rwanda, and Namibia. This report
identifies the ways operations succeeded in countries such as Mozambique and critiques the UN for
its failures in Somalia and Rwanda. The paper ends by providing four conditions where operations
may succeed.
Brookings Institution- Peacekeeping
This sites serves as an aggregator of all articles and papers on peacekeeping written by analysts at
the Brookings Institution, a foreign relations think tank. The site’s articles include treatises on
South Sudan, West Africa, the Middle East, and other regions. This site provides an excellent
introduction to what think tanks may argue with regard to peacekeeping,
United Nations Association of Canada Page on Peacekeeping
This site, as part of the United Nations Association of Canada, provides an overview of Canada’s
participation in peacekeeping operations. The site includes a series of fact sheets on Canadian
participation and, interestingly, a list of myths and facts about Canadian involvement (e.g. whether
Canada leads the world in peacekeeping operations).
Foreign Policy Briefing by Samantha Power on Peacekeeping
This 2009 speech by Samantha Power, Special Assistant to the President and Senior Director for
Multilateral Affairs at the Department of State, details a meeting between President Obama and
other world leaders over American contributions to peacekeeping operations. Ms. Power then
answered a few questions about (primarily African) peacekeeping operations and the role of the
United States in future peacekeeping.
Citizens for Global Solutions Site on Peacekeeping
Citizens for Global Solutions is a think tank committed to furthering an internationalist approach to
American foreign policy: to that end, they include a site on their website very supportive of UN
peacekeeping. The site lists a number of articles written by CGS on the United Nations and a
number of links to other sites, including videos from UN TV on peacekeeping.
Time for a New UN Peacekeeping Organization
This 2007 from the right-wing American think tank the Heritage Foundation argues that the UN
should create an independent agency for peacekeeping. The report pinpoints areas the author
believes has impeded effective UN action, such as bureaucratic inertia and corruption, and outlines
a recommended agency that could effectively undertake peacekeeping operations.
United States Institute of Peace Pre-9/11 Peacekeeping in Africa Report
This 2001 report from the US Institute of Peace comes on the heels of the Brahimi Report. The
report identifies a lack of political will as the greatest impediment for continued American
participation in peacekeeping operations.
UN Volunteers Overview of Peacekeeping
United Nations Volunteers is a support program of volunteers who provide aid to the DPKO and the
Department of Political Affairs (DPA) in UN peacekeeping operations. While this is primarily geared
towards recruiting volunteers (though if one is interested in supporting UN peacekeeping
operations, this would be a place to check out), this website also contains stories of past UN
volunteers and the requirements to support the mission.
UN Conduct and Discipline Unit- unit overseeing any sexual misconduct amongst UN peacekeeping
The United Nations Conduct and Discipline Unit is an organization charged with maintaining
discipline and stamping out sexual abuse amongst UN peacekeepers. The site provides a host of
resources related to investigations of sexual abuse and the current UN codes of conduct. This would
serve as a great primary source for individuals looking at the numerous aspects of UN peacekeeping
besides just undertaking a mission.
To protect sovereignty, or to protect lives?- The Economist
This article from the Economist in 2008 details the debate between the “right to protect” within the
context of the 2008 crisis over a cyclone hitting Burma. The article summarizes the debate over R2P
from the 1990s until 2008 and cleanly lays out the sides to the issue (R2P vs. state sovereignty). A
good introduction to the issue.
Peacekeeping Web Links from USIP (from 2004)
The United States Institute of Peace in 2004 collected a series of weblinks complementing their own
reports on US peacekeeping. While some of the resources are dated, the site includes a number of
links to peacekeeping operations, including those of NATO and the United States. As this
bibliography focuses on the United Nations only, this site would be a great gateway to analyze
International Humanitarian Law (from the Red Cross)
The Red Cross provides a brief, two-page PDF fact sheet outlining humanitarian law on this site.
The document provides a concise yet informative primer on the many aspects of international law
related to conflicts, its bases, and how it might be implemented by the United Nations. A great
introduction for individuals who are trying to look for something more reliable than a “Wikipedia”
The Responsibility to Protect Commission
This website catalogues all of the information, the lead-up to, and the actual report of the
International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty that in 2001 provided the world
with the idea of the “Responsibility to Protect.” An excellent primary resource, this website gives
researchers a great way to understand the background and the defining document of the debate
over the R2P.
Responsibility to Protect Coalition
The Responsibility to Protect Coalition was a non-profit organization that sought to advance the
cause of R2P within public opinion. The site does not appear to have been updated since at least
2009 and the organization appears to have not sponsored any major activities since 2007.
However, the website itself includes a neat little chronology of R2P activities throughout the first
years after the ICISS’s publication.
Two concepts of sovereignty by Kofi Annan- interview with the Economist
Kofi Annan discusses the evolution of international humanitarian intervention within the context of
human rights crises during the 1990s. By looking at the debate over international intervention in
Kosovo and the uproar following the international community’s failure to intervene in Rwanda,
Annan traces the problems with the doctrine yet outlines his support for it as well. A great way to
understand the debate prior to 2001 over humanitarian intervention.
Ethics of Armed Humanitarian Intervention
This publication from 2002 by the United States Institute of Peace discusses the ethical implications
of humanitarian intervention. The author conducts a philosophical review of the conditions that
one may apply to intervention to determine its ethical viability. This document would serve as an
example of how one may look at the philosophical/moral underpinnings of arguments in support
(or against) R2P.
Memo from the UN on Peacekeeping- In Peacekeeping, a Muddling of the Mission
This article presents a series of critiques of UN peacekeeping missions, reporting on the failures of
peacekeeping operations and the overzealousness of the UN to launch peacekeeping operations
that stretch the organization’s meager resources. The article, from 2009 in the New York Times,
provides a glimpse at the continuing debate for peacekeeping reform related to the lack of focus
and clarity in UN peacekeeping missions.
United Nations Peacekeeping Training Courses
The United Nations Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR) is an organization that provides
online lessons in peacekeeping, related to conflict analysis and preparedness for peacekeepers.
While the classes are limited in size (and, although I could not find this information, presumably
cost money to attend), these programs would provide a great way for researchers to probe how
some UN peacekeepers prepare for their assignments. As well, there are a number of videos
available about these topics freely on the site.
UN Peacekeeping Operations Principles and Guidelines
This website (hosted by the British government) presents a PDF report from 2007 detailing the
lessons learned by the United Nations related to peacekeeping conduct. The report details the
framework and conduct of peacekeeping from an organization and theoretical level: it focuses on
the nuts and bolts of peacekeeping as opposed to historical examples. This PDF thus serves
individuals to understand how peacekeeping works, though primarily from an ahistorical,
operational, pragmatic perspective
Small Wars Journal- on UN Peacekeeping
The Small Wars Journal, an online blog/journal chronicling low-level conflicts throughout the
world, has a site, which collects various publications from academics and government officials on
NY Times on Peacekeeping
This site from the New York Times includes all the articles hitherto written on peacekeeping. This
source solves as a great resource for individuals trying to get the latest information on the conduct,
and debate over, UN peacekeeping.
UN Peacekeeping- Better World Campaign
A part of the Better World campaign, it advocates for a stronger UN peacekeeping force and for
greater American involvement. Researchers may want to use this site as it includes a lengthy and
detailed resources page with links to videos and websites dedicated to peacekeeping.
Partnership for Effective Peacekeeping- Reports
The Partnership for Effective Peacekeeping is a non-profit in Washington, DC comprised of other
NGOs with the purpose of serving as a working group on UN peacekeeping reform. Their
publications page collects up-to-date documents on how to reform the UN both institutionally and
to change the UN’s mission worldwide.
United Nations Documentation Research Guide
This research guide of United Nations Peacekeeping documents includes guides to resolutions,
statements, meeting records, etc. for the United Nations. This research guide will help you find the
types of documents one may look for and where to find them, though the guide does not provide
instructions to finding online sources for many of these documents.

Word - United Nations History Project