Name ______________________
Pd ___________
Safety and Scientific Method
1. What piece of equipment would be most appropriate for measuring the volume of a marble?
2. The safest way to dilute concentrated sulfuric acid is to add ______________ to ____________.
3. In the space below, list 5 important safety rules to follow in the science lab:
4. After completing a laboratory experiment, Grace had some left-over chemicals that she did not
use. These chemicals should be?
5. Define placebo?
6. Define the following: independent variable, dependent variable, controlled variable:
7. Objects of the same mass but of different sizes and shapes were dropped from a given height.
Their rates of free fall were measured and recorded. What is the most likely question this
experiment was designed to answer?
8. Shawn and Jose are setting up an experiment to measure the effect of a new fertilizer on the
growth of daisies. They get five identical pots with the same amount of soil and place the same
number of daisy seeds into each pot. Each pot has the same amount of water and gets the same
amount of Sunlight. Pot 1-4 get 1mg,2mg,3mg,and 4mg of the fertilizer respectively. The fifth pot
gets no fertilizer. At the end of three weeks the daisies were measured. What is the dependent
9. Vocabulary Terms to know:
 hypothesis
10. Put the following steps of the scientific method in the correct order:
Collecting Data, Conclusion, Results, Hypothesis, Procedure, Observations
Name ______________________
Pd ___________
11. Which of the following compounds may be polymers?
a. carbohydrates
c. proteins
b. nucleic acids
d. all of the above
12. An unsaturated lipid contains ______.
a. more oxygen than hydrogen
b. double bonds
c. ionic bonds
d. only one fatty acid
13.Lipids are organic molecules that store energy and serve as components of cell membranes. What
smaller biomolecules combine to make a lipid?
a. glycerol and fatty acids
c. nitrogen and a carboxyl group
b. glycerol and amino acids
d. sugar and a phosphate group
14.Proteins are polymers formed from _______.
a. lipids
b. carbohydrates c. amino acids
d. nucleic acids
15.When an animal has to survive without food for a long time, it will eventually break down proteins
for energy. However, this process occurs only after exhausting the animal’s reserves of
a. DNA and RNA.
c. carbon dioxide and water.
b. carbohydrates and lipids.
d. enzymes and nucleic acids.
16. When an animal has to survive without food for a long time, it will eventually break down
proteins for energy. However, this process occurs only after exhausting the animal’s reserves of
a. DNA and RNA.
c. carbohydrates and lipids.
b. carbon dioxide and water.
d. enzymes and nucleic acids.
17.Complex molecules are broken down during cellular respiration and converted
molecules containing energy. What are these complex molecules called?
a. proteins
c. enzymes
b. nucleic acids
d. carbohydrates
into smaller
18.In polymerization, complex molecules are formed by joining the together of
a. macromolecules
c. polymers
b. carbohydrates
d. monomers
19.An enzyme speed up a reaction by
a. Catalyst
b. product
c. substrate
d. active site
20. What are the three parts of the cell theory?
21. List the eight characteristics of life.
Name ______________________
Pd ___________
22. Which organelle below provides energy for the cell to function?
23. In the human body the circulatory system transports and delivers substances within the cell.
Which organelle performs a similar function?
24. Energy conversion within an animal cell would be severely limited by removal of the cell’s —
25. What is the basic unit of life?
26. For the following, write a “P” if it belongs to a plant; write an “A” if it belongs to an animal; write “B”
if it applies to BOTH a plant and animal cells; write “N” if it applies to neither:
Cell membrane
Cell wall
Golgi body
Large vacuole
Small contractile vacuole
27. Fill in the following chart:
Organelle and Sketch
Rough and Smooth
Endoplasmic Reticulum
Name ______________________
Pd ___________
Golgi Apparatus
Plasma Membrane
(there are three functions
you must know!)
Cell Wall
28. Two differences between plant and animal cells are.
Photosynthesis and Cell Resp
29. Define autotroph and heterotroph.
30. What is radiant energy?
31. What is the equation for photosynthesis?
32. What is used in light reactions? What is made in this reaction?
33. What is used in the Calvin Cycle? What is made in this reaction?
34. What is the equation for cellular respiration?
35. List the steps occurring during cellular respiration.
36. How is cellular respiration the opposite of photosynthesis?
37. What happens after glycolysis? ( If oxygen is available, and if it is not)
Name ______________________
Pd ___________
38. What is fermentation? Define different types
39. In the following boxes, write whether the statement represents photosynthesis, cellular respiration,
both or neither.
Uses carbon dioxide from the
Requires sunlight to occur.
Occurs only at night (or in the
Takes place in the mitochondria.
Occurs in all eukaryotes.
Involved in changing one form
of energy to another form of
Releases energy from food.
Takes place in the chloroplasts. Carbon dioxide is a reactant.
Occurs only in autotrophs.
Carbon dioxide is a product.
Glucose is a product.
Releases oxygen into the
Occurs only in heterotrophs.
Oxygen is a reactant.
Takes place here:
Takes place here:
Is represented here:
solar energy
CO2 + H2O
O2 and sugars
Name ______________________
Pd ___________
Cell Transport Review:
40. Using a t-chart, compare passive and active transport. Include the following: use ATP, do not use
ATP, H  L concentration gradient, L  H concentration gradient, against the gradient, down the
gradient, diffusion, osmosis, facilitated diffusion, endocytosis, exocytosis.
41. Explain what molecules can simply diffuse across a lipid bilayer.
42. Explain why cell surface proteins are needed for facilitated diffusion.
43. Draw and Label the three types of osmotic solutions. Demonstrate solute concentration inside and
outside of the cell and the flow of water with pointed arrows:
44. Fill in the blanks:
b. When a cell is placed in a “hypertonic” solution, there is _______ solute inside the cell
so __________ flows ______.
c. When a cell is placed in a “hypotonic” solution, there is ________ solute inside the cell
so __________ flows _______.
d. When a cell is placed in an “isotonic” solution, there is _________ solute inside the cell
so _________ flows ______________.
45. What will happen to a freshwater fish placed in saltwater? Draw this example, including the flow of
46. Which type of transport is illustrated in Cell A? What about Cell B? Explain why discussing the
movement of particles against or down their concentration gradient.
Name ______________________
Pd ___________
47. Endocytosis involves cells bringing materials and substances _________ the cell, while
exocytosis involves cells bringing materials and substances __________ of the cell.
48. Complete the following analogy for the two types of endocytosis:
___________________: liquids :: __________________ : solids
49. Why is transport into and out of cells a requirement for the cell to maintain homeostasis?
50. Genes contain instructions for assembling
a. proteins.
b. purines.
c. nucleosomes.
d. pyrimidines.
51. During transcription, an RNA molecule is formed
a. that is double-stranded.
b. inside the nucleus.
c. that is identical to part of a single strand of DNA.
d. that is complementary to both strands of DNA.
52. What is DNA used to code for?
a. carbohydrates
b. proteins
c. fats
d. amino acids
53. During translation, the type of amino acid that is added to the growing polypeptide chain depends
on the
a. codon on the mRNA only.
b. anticodon on the tRNA to which the amino acid is attached only.
c. codon on the mRNA and the anticodon on the tRNA to which the amino
acid is attached.
d. anticodon on the mRNA only.
54. How many codons are needed to make three amino acids?
a. 12
b. 3
c. 9
d. 6
55. Which type(s) of RNA is(are) involved in protein synthesis?
a. transfer RNA only
b. messenger RNA only
c. ribosomal RNA and transfer RNA only
Name ______________________
Pd ___________
56. What happens during the process of translation?
a. Messenger RNA is made from DNA.
b. Copies of DNA molecules are made.
c. Transfer RNA is made from messenger RNA.
d. The cell uses information from messenger RNA to produce proteins.
Figure 12-2
57. What does Figure 12–2 show?
a. the code for splicing mRNA
b. anticodons
c. the genetic code
d. the order in which amino acids are linked
58. According to Figure 12–2, what does the mRNA strand AUGCGGUUGUGA code for during
translation/protein synthesis?
Use figure 12-4 to answer the following questions.
59. What process is being demonstrated in the arrow labeled X? Where does this occur in the cell?
60. What process is being demonstrated in the arrow labeled Y? Where does this occur in the cell?
Figure 12–4
Name ______________________
Pd ___________
Use the diagram below to answer the following question:
61. What is C? What is D? Explain what is happening in this picture.
Genetics and DNA technology
62. What three things do you need to make a clone?
63. Describe the cloning process.
64. What is a gel electrophoresis and what is it used for?
65. What is gene transformation?
66. What is PCR?
67. What are the pros and cons of stem cell research?
68. What is genetics?
69. . Who is the Father of Genetics?
Give the possible gametes for each genotype:
Aa ____________
BB ____________
cc _____________
Name ______________________
Pd ___________
71. Define heterozygous and homozygous.
Show all work for the following problems:
72. The gene for tongue rolling is dominant. A man that cannot roll his tongue marries a woman that
can and she is homozygous for the trait. List all possible genotypes and phenotypes for future
73. In guinea pigs, brown fur (B) is co-dominant with white fur (W). If you cross two heterozygous
guinea pigs, what are the possible phenotypes?
74. In snapdragons, red (R) shows incomplete dominance with white (r). If you cross a heterozygous
snapdragon with a white snapdragon, what are the possible phenotypes?
75. The pea plant produces plants of two different sizes, and seeds that are two different shapes: tall
pea plants (T) are dominant to dwarf pea plants (t) whereas round seeds (R) are dominant to
wrinkled seeds (r). Two plants heterozygous for both traits are mated. What fraction of their
progeny will be dwarf and have wrinkled seeds?
76. Fill in the following chart:
Single Gene Trait
Polygenic Trait
Controlled by?
(single gene or many
Type of variation?
(Discontinuous or
Expressed as?
(Either/Or or a Range)
Examples – at least five
77. A man with Type AB blood marries a woman with Type A blood. What are all the possible
combinations of genotypes? For each combination, work out the genotypic and phenotypic ratios
of the possible offspring.
Name ______________________
Pd ___________
78. What is a sex-linked trait?
79. Are the following traits dominant or recessive?
Use the following pedigree chart to answer the following questions:
80. What does each symbol in the above pedigree represent?
81. What is the possible genotype that the 2nd generation affected male has: AA, Aa, or aa?
82. The science of classifying organisms is:
83. Dichotomous keys are :
84. What is binomial nomenclature and provide an example of how it is used.
85. Identify the correct listing of taxa from largest to smallest.
Name ______________________
Pd ___________
86. A cladogram shows relationships of organisms based on what three things?
Use the diagram below to answer question 87:
87. Which character from the list below was derived by only two organisms?
a. feathers
b. fur
c. claws
d. lungs
88. This kingdom includes “true” bacteria that live in a variety of environments.
89. Identify the correct statement below.
a. Archaebacteria commonly cause diseases.
b. Protista are eukaryotes.
c. Fungi are autotrophs.
d. Plantae are heterotrophs.
90. Which kingdom contains organisms that are producers for all other organisms?
91. Fill out the following chart:
Pro Vs Euk
Auto vs.
Multi vs uni.
Extra defining
Name ______________________
Pd ___________
92. Who was Lamarck and what where his three theories? Explain each one.
93. Who was Darwin and what are the parts to his theory of natural selection?
94. Define the following Chapter 15 terms:
a. Evolution
b. Fitness
c. Adaptation AND give an example
d. Common ancestor
e. Natural Selection
f. Artificial Selection
g. Homologous Structures AND give an example
h. Vestigial Structures AND give an example
i. Analogous Structures AND give an example
j. Embryology
k. Fossil
Define the following Chapter 16 terms:
l. Gene pool
m. Population
n. Allele frequency
o. Genetic drift
p. Founder Effect
q. Genetic equilibrium
r. Speciation
95. What are the two sources of genetic variation?
96. What does natural selection act upon: genotypes or phenotypes?
97. What is the relative frequency of an allele? How can that change?
98. What are the three types of natural selection on polygenic traits? Draw AND label the graphs.
99. What besides natural selection causes species to evolve in small populations? (hint: there are two
Name ______________________
Pd ___________
100. What does the Hardy Weinburg principle explain? List AND explain the five things necessary
for genetic equilibrium.
What must occur for speciation to happen?
What are the three kids of reproductive isolation? Explain each.

Name Pd ______ EOC REVIEW 2012 Safety and Scientific Method