Ch 10 Test Topics: DNA, RNA, Protein Synthesis & Mutations

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BioHnrs
Ch 10 Test Topics: DNA, RNA, Protein Synthesis & Mutations

Scientists and experiments that contributed to our understanding of DNA as the molecule of
inheritance.
o Griffith
o Hershey & Chase
o Avery
o Chargaff
o Franklin
o Watson & Crick

DNA structure
o Monomer & its sub-parts
o Backbone vs. rungs
o Base-pair rule;
o Purines vs. pyrimidines
o antiparallel

DNA replication
o DNA polymerase
o Leading vs. laggings strand

Why can’t both strands be made continuously?

What direction are the new strands made?
o Significance of semiconservative replication

State and explain the central dogma of molecular biology:
DNA RNA Protein.

DNA vs. RNA

State the importance of mRNA and transcription to the synthesis of a protein.

Describe the process of transcription
o RNA polymerase
o Promoter/Initiation
o Elongation
o Terminator/Termination

Explain why many eukaryotic genes are longer than the mRNA that leaves the nucleus.

Give the role of rRNA, tRNA, and mRNA in protein synthesis.

Transcribe DNA sequences into mRNA.

Compare and contrast DNA and RNA.

Explain the terms DNA triplet, codon, and anticodon.

Describe the process of translation (initiation, elongation, termination)

Translate mRNA sequences.

Define the term mutation.

Identify and describe the types of mutations that can affect genes.
o Point vs. Frameshift

Evaluate the impact of a gene mutation on a polypeptide.

Explain how a gene mutation can cause disease.

Compare and contrast gene mutations with chromosomal mutations

Identify and describe the types of mutations that can affect chromosomes
o Duplication
o Deletion
o Translocation
o Inversion
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