Fertilization

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EOC Vocabulary Teacher Key Pages 81-94
1. Fertilization- Sperm and eggs unite
within the mother’s reproductive system.
2. Gestation- Length of human
development / how long the fetus is in the
womb. Ex- humans is 9 months.
3. Embryo- The earliest stage of
development, first eight weeks of
pregnancy the baby is considered this.
4. Fetus- the 8th week until birth, a
developing human.
5. Implantation- When the fertilized egg
becomes implanted into the uterine wall of
the uterus.
6. Placenta- structure through which the
mother nourishes the embryo with
nutrients. Also known as the afterbirth.
7. Zygote- fertilized egg
8. Uterus- provides protection and
nourishment during development.
9. Amnion- encloses and protects the
embryo. Later develops into the amniotic
sac.
10. Chorion- Interacts with the uterus to
form the placenta.
11. Acrosome- Releases enzymes that allow
the sperm to penetrate the egg’s
membrane.
12. Gap 1- rapid cell growth during this
stage of Interphase, 90% of its time is spent
here.
13. Synthesis- DNA is copied and the end
result is two chromatids.
14. Gap 2- final stage of Interphase before
mitosis where final preparations to divide
are made.
15. Mitosis- Nucleus of the cell is divided
into two identical daughter cells.
16. Cytokinesis- cytoplasm divides.
17. Homeostasis- Maintaining a stable
internal balance. Ex- normal body temp or
pH.
18. Prophase- Chromosomes coil up and
become visible, nuclear envelope breaks
down, and spindles form.
19. Metaphase- Chromosomes move to the
center of the cell and align for cell division.
20. Anaphase- Centromeres divide and
chromatids move apart to opposite sides of
the cell.
21. Telophase- Nuclear envelope reforms,
chromosomes shorten and uncoil, spindles
dissolve, and Mitosis is complete starting
the formation of identical daughter cells.
22. Cell Cycle- Repeating sequence of
cellular growth and division during the life
of an organism.
23. Asexual Reproduction- Reproduction
involving one parent and the offspring are
genetically identical to the parent.
24. Sexual Reproduction- Reproduction
involving two parents and the offspring are
genetically different to the parents.
25. Gametes- Sex cells, sperm and eggs.
26. Haploid Cells- Contains one set of
chromosomes. Ex- 23 or n.
27. Binary Fission- One cell turns into two
and it continues to rapidly divide / double.
Ex.- bactieria.
28. Budding- New individuals split off from
existing ones and create a new individual.
Ex- Hydra
29. Fragmentation- The body breaks into
several pieces and grows new individuals.
Ex- sea star
30. Diploid- Cells have two copies of each
chromosome one from mom and dad,
totaling 46 or 2n
31. Independent Assortment- random
distribution of homologous chromosomes
during meiosis.
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