Metals - General Chemistry

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The Atom
Introduction to the
Periodic Table
The Periodic Table
• The Periodic Table of Elements is the chart that lists
every known element according to their physical and
chemical properties
• Elements are arranged in rows called periods by
increasing atomic number
• Elements in the same column are said to be members
of the same family or group
• Elements can also be categorized in many other ways,
according to placement and properties
The Periodic Table
Period 4
Group 13
Metallic Character
Elements can also be categorized by metal, non-metal, or semimetal (also called metalloids)
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•
•
•
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Metals
Good conductors
of heat/electricity
Malleable
Ductile
Strong
Lustrous
Tend to lose
electrons in
reactions
Metalloids
• Intermediate
properties of
metals and nonmetals
• Boron, silicon,
germanium,
arsenic, antimony,
tellurium,
polonium, and
astatine
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Non-Metals
Poor conductors
of heat/electricity
Not malleable
Not ductile
Often have dull
appearance
Tend to gain
electrons in
reactions with
metals
Metallic Character
Non-Metals
(blue)
Metals
(grey)
Metalloids
(orange)
Alkali Metals
Alkali Metals belong to Group 1 and consist of lithium, sodium,
potassium, rubidium, cesium, and francium
Alkaline Earth Metals
Alkaline Earth Metals belong to Group 2 and consist of beryllium,
magnesium, calcium, strontium, barium, and radium.
Pnictogens
The Pnictogens are Group 15 (or 5A) and consist of nitrogen,
phosphorus, arsenic, antimony, bismuth, and element 115
(ununpentium)
Chalcogens
The Chalcogens are Group 16 (or 6A) and consist of oxygen, sulfur,
selenium, tellurium, polonium, and element 116 (recently named
Livermorium!)
Halogens
The Halogens belong to Group 17 (or 7A) and consist of fluorine,
chlorine, bromine, iodine, astatine, and element 117 (ununseptium)
Noble Gases
The Noble Gases belong to Group 18 (or 8A) and consist of helium,
neon, argon, krypton, xenon, radon, and element 118 (ununoctium)
Transition Metals
The Transition Metals belong to Group 3-12 and also include the
Rare Earth Metals (lanthanides and actinides).
Lanthanides
Actinides
Chemistry Coffee Break
Fast Facts of the Periodic Table
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The letter “J” is the only letter that does not appear on the periodic table
There is strong controversy about where to place hydrogen
All elements from Polonium and on are radioactive, and Technetium (atomic
number 43)!
– Recently, Bistmuth (atomic number 83) was found to be slightly radioactive, but
with a half-life of more than 1 billion times the age of the universe! Thus, it is
generally considered stable
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The only elements liquid under standard conditions are mercury and
bromine
Tungsten is the only elemental name to come from a German term
(“wolfram,” hence the atomic symbol W)
Scientists are working on creating element 120, which will change the shape
of the periodic table
• Flerovium (114) and Livermorium (112) are the
latest elements to be named (May 2012).
– Flerovium was first created in 1998. Despite
being in Group 14, it seems to exibit Noble Gas
properties
– Livermorium was first detected in 2000 and so
far, only about 35 atoms have been synthesized.
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