五十種成為優良TA的方法 - 陽明大學視覺文化研究所

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如何觀看?

劉瑞琪

何謂視覺文化

?

visual studies: the field of study

visual culture: the object of study

James D. Herbert, cp.

藝術史 -

democratization

globalization

dematerialization

• • • • • • • • • • • •

如何觀看藝術品

?

(傳記研究、文獻研究、黑格爾的美學、鑑定學) 形式主義/風格分析 圖像誌與圖像學 (何謂心理圖式?) 記號學(結構主義、後結構主義、解構) 精神分析 馬克思主義與藝術社會史 女性主義 接受理論 後殖民論述 同志學

形式主義/風格分析

• • • • 什麼是

form

? 由

design

(設計)的組成元素所創造的美學效果 -

design

的要素:

line, shape, form, space, texture, light, color

design

的原則:

unity, contrast, balance, emphasis, scale, proportion, rhythm

風格:持續的形式 形式主義者認為,風格的發展有其內在的邏輯,不 受藝術家與社會文化脈絡的影響

Heinrich Wölfflin

的《藝術史的原則》(

1915

Design

的要素 •

Line

:輪廓線、構圖上暗示的線條、影線、交叉排線 •

Shape

:外形、造型 •

Form (mass)

:形式或團塊 •

Space

:常用大氣透視、線性透視、前縮法來呈現空間 •

Texture

:質地 •

Light (value)

:光線明暗 •

Color

:暖色、寒色、互補色、色彩的明暗、色彩的飽和度、 色彩的和諧

Eugene Gericault, The Raft of the Medusa (1819)

Leonardo da Vinci, Self-Portrait (c. 1512)

Albert Bierstadt, The Rocky Mountains, Lander's Peak (1863)

Leonardo da Vinci, The Last Supper (1498)

Andrea Mantegna, The Lamentation over the Dead Christ (c. 1480)

Willem Claesz. Heda, Still Life (1634)

Leonardo da Vinci, Virgin With St. Anne (c. 1507)

James Whistler , Nocturne in Blue and Gold (c. 1872-75)

Henri Matisse, Harmony in Red (1908)

Design

的原則

Unity (harmony)

Contrast (variety)

Balance (symmetrical and asymmetrical

) •

Emphasis (focal point)

Scale

Proportion

Rhythm (movement, pattern, repetition

)

Gauguin, Day of the Gods (1894)

J. M. W. Turner, The Burning of the Houses of Parliament (1835)

Francisco Goya, Executions of the Third of May (1808)

Giorgio de Chirico, Love Song (1914)

Claes Oldenburg

,

Clothespin (1976) vs. Claes Oldenburg, Lipstick (1969)

Edward Hopper, Early Sunday Morning (1930)

Piet Mondrian, Broadway Boogie Woogie (1942-43)

Heinrich Wölfflin

的《藝術史的原則》(

1915

Renaissance

linear plane closed form multiplicity absolute clarity

Baroque

painterly recession open form unity relative clarity

Alessandro Botticelli, The Birth of Venus (C. 1485) vs. Rembrandt, Night Watch

Raphael. Marriage of the Virgin. 1504 vs. Rembrandt, Night Watch

Clement Greenberg

“Modernist Painting,” 1961 optical (anti-sculptural) Medium

(媒材)

: flat/ frame/ facture (3f) surface/ support/pigment (s/s/p)

Albrecht Dürer, Draftsman Drawing a Recumbent Woman (1525)

Jean-Léon Gérôme, The Slave Market (early 1860s)

Jean-Léon Gérôme, The Snake Charmer (late 1860s)

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