Handout 1 of 2 February 16, 2015 NURS 330 Human Reproductive Health Today’s Agenda Review 2/9/15 In-Class Assignment STD Lecture Infertility & Sexuality Lecture Quiz Study Guide In-Class Assignment What Are STDs? Sexually – relating to having sex, personal intimate contact (e.g., rubbing of genitals, masturbating a partner), etc. Transmitted – passed by means of, spread by Disease – being sick (with or without symptoms), body not working properly So, an STD = a disease/infection you can get from or give to someone else by having oral, vaginal, or anal sex or other intimate contact with him/her. Source: County of Los Angeles STD Program Health Consequences of STDs Source: County of Los Angeles STD Program STDs in the United States • The CDC estimates that there are approximately 19 million new cases each year in the US 1 • There are an estimated 65 million people in the US living with a viral STD 2 • More than half of all people will have an STD/STI at some point in their lifetime. 2 • One in two sexually active persons will contact an STD/STI by age 25. 2 • The cost of STDs to the U.S. health care system is estimated to be as much as $15.9 billion annually 1 1 2 Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, cdc.gov Source: American Social Health Association, www.ashastd.org BACTERIAL Chlamydia STDs Gonorrhea Syphilis Transmission Pre-cum, semen, Pre-cum, semen, Skin-to-skin; genital vaginal secretions vaginal secretions to genital rubbing Perinatal Perinatal Symptoms NOTHING or Discharge from penis, vagina NOTHING or Discharge from penis, vagina 1-chancre 2-skin, genital rash 3- organ damage Complications PID in females Epidimytis in males PID in females Epidimytis in males Blindness, paralysis, heart problems, etc Diagnosis Urine sample Urethral, cervical swab Urine sample Blood sample Urethral, cervical swab Treatment Curable with antibiotics Curable with antibiotics Curable with antibiotics Source: County of Los Angeles STD Program CHLAMYDIA Risk factors: Unprotected oral, vaginal or anal sex GONORRHEA Risk factors: Unprotected oral, vaginal or anal sex SYPHILIS Oral, vaginal or anal sex (protected or unprotected) VIRAL STDS HPV HERPES HEP B Transmission Skin-to-skin; genital to genital rubbing Skin-to-skin; genital Blood, pre-cum, to genital rubbing; semen, vaginal social kissing secretions Symptoms NOTHING –orHigh Risk: Cervical changes Low Risk: Warts in, on around genitals NOTHING –orBlisters in, on around genitals (HSVII) or mouth (HSV I) NOTHING –orFatigue, flu-like symptoms, jaundice Complications Cervical Cancer Psychosocial Psychosocial Complications of the liver Diagnosis HPV test Pap smear screening Blood test, blister sample Blood sample Treatment Not curable Vaccine available Not curable Not curable Vaccine available Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) Vaginal or anal sex (protected or unprotected) Pap Smears Screens for pre-cancerous cells in cervix When to start 3 years after sexual debut or at age 21, whichever comes first Remember, you do NOT have to be sexually active to get a pap smear Does not necessarily test for STDs You have to ask for specific STD tests It is important to be your own health advocate How often should I get pap smears? It varies, depending on your pap results Your doctor or nurse will let you know HPV Vaccine Vaccine Gardasil® by Merck approved in 2006 • • • Provides protection against four HPV types which together cause 70% of cervical cancers and 90% of genital warts Three shots over six-month period Licensed for use in girls/women 9-26 years old In October 2009, FDA approved for use in boys/men 9-26 years old Another HPV vaccine by GSK currently in final stages of development • Would provide protection against two HPV types that cause most (70%) cervical cancers Source: County of Los Angeles STD Program HERPES Risk Factors: Oral, vaginal or anal sex (protected or unprotected) HEPATITIS B Risk factors: Unprotected sex, sharing needles, tattoos, sharing household items such as razors, toothbrushes OTHER Yeast Bacterial Vaginosis (BV) Trichomoniasis Cause Not an STD. Caused by an overgrowth of yeast. Sexual transmission STD possible.Overgrowth of bacteria. Symptoms Women - Thick, cloudy discharge from vagina, itching Men – rash on penis White or yellow Bubbly, frothy discharge, fishy odor discharge. Irritation upon urination Complications No major complications Excessive scratching can cause irritation in genital area Increases chance of HIV infection; If pregnant, a woman runs the risk of pregnancy complications Increased risk of getting HIV Can cause Complications during pregnancy Diagnosis Vaginal culture Whiff test Vaginal culture Treatment Anti-fungal cream Prescription Drugs Prescription Drugs STD Prevention Review Abstinence Use latex or polyurethane condoms (male or female) and barriers as much as possible Water-based lubricants Reduces friction Get tested regularly Reduce number of sex partners Reduce frequency of risky situations Spectrum of sexual risk, depending on the STD e.g., oral sex may be considered low risk for HIV but not for syphilis Talk to partners Vaccines - Hepatitis B, HPV Get to know your bodies!