principles of mktg

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‫اصول و مديريت معاصر بازاريابي‬
‫كامليا احتشامي اكبري‪،‬‬
‫دکتراي مديريت بازاريابي‬
‫دانشکده مديريت‪،‬‬
‫دانشگاه تهران‬
‫عضو هيات علمي سازمان مديريت صنعتي‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫مباني مديريت بازاريابي‬
‫‪ ‬هدف‪:‬‬
‫‪ ‬آشنايي با اصول بازاريابي در ابعاد تئوريك و عملي به نحوي كه شركت‬
‫كنندگان قادر به تشخيص مسئله‪ ،‬ارائه تعريف از مسئله و راه حل يابي‬
‫براي مسئلهء بازاريابي سازمان خويش شوند‪.‬‬
‫‪ ‬آشنايي با حوزه هاي مختلف عمليات بازاريابي‬
‫‪ ‬آشنايي با اصول و هدف طرح بازاريابي‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫مهارت هاي اكتسابي در پايان درس‬
‫‪‬‬
‫‪‬‬
‫‪‬‬
‫‪‬‬
‫تسلط تئوريك بر مفهوم و مكاتب بازاريابي‬
‫تشخيص استراتژي هاي بازاريابي بر حسب نيازهاي سازمان‬
‫توان اوليه درتدوين برنامه بازاريابي‬
‫آشنايي با مفاهيم پايه مکتب مديريتي در بازاريابي‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫چند پيش فرض‬
‫‪ ‬بازاريابي با مفهوم ”بازارياب“ و فروش تفاوت دارد‪.‬‬
‫بازاريابي در اين درس به مفهوم مديريت بازار است‪.‬‬
‫‪ ‬بازاريابي در شرايط غير رقابتي معنا ندارد‪ .‬رقابت اصل‬
‫زيربنايي بازاريابي است‪ .‬صنايعي كه در داخل كشور‬
‫مشمول رقابت نمي شوند (مثل صنعت خودروسازي و نه‬
‫تامين قطعات خودرو و‪ )....‬مشمول مفروضات بازاريابي‬
‫نيستند‪.‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫روش ارزيابي‬
‫‪‬‬
‫‪‬‬
‫‪‬‬
‫‪‬‬
‫‪‬‬
‫كارگروهي‬
‫آزمون (پروژه)‬
‫مشاركت در کالس و در گروه‬
‫خبري‬
‫حضور و غياب‬
‫شهروندي در كالس‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫عضويت در شبكه‬
‫اجتماعي زينگ‬
‫‪ ‬آدرس هاي پست الكترونيك خود را در همين كالس لطف كنيد‪ .‬تا‬
‫دعوتنامه خدمتتان ارسال شود‪.‬‬
‫منابع‬
‫مديريت بازاريابي (آقايان روستا‪ ،‬ابراهيمي‪ ،‬ونوس)‬
‫تحول نظريه بازاريابي (ياگديش شث)‬
‫اصول و مديريت بازاريابي (كاتلر‪ ،‬ترجمه بهمن فروزنده)‬
‫مقاالت ‪...‬‬
‫‪6‬‬
‫بازاريابي يعني‬
‫جنگ‬
‫‪7‬‬
‫بازاريابي يعني جنگ‬
‫‪‬‬
‫‪‬‬
‫‪‬‬
‫‪‬‬
‫‪‬‬
‫هدف؟‬
‫ميدان جنگ؟‬
‫جنگ بر سر چي؟‬
‫آيا نيازي به استراتژي هست؟‬
‫سربازان چه كساني هستند؟ متحدين چه كساني هستند؟‬
‫‪8‬‬
‫عواملي که بازارها را متحول ساخته اند‬
‫(چالش ها و انگيزه ها)‪:‬‬
‫‪ ‬توليد در مقياس جهاني‬
‫‪ ‬افزايش شکاف درآمدي‬
‫‪ ‬محيط زيست و مسئوليت های‬
‫اجتماعی‬
‫‪ ‬تقسيم کار جهاني‬
‫‪ ‬بلوک هاي تجاري و سازمان‬
‫تجارت جهاني‬
‫‪ ‬نقش فزاينده زنان در عرصهء‬
‫توليد وکار‬
‫‪.... ‬‬
‫‪ ‬و تکنولوژي و ارتباطات‬
‫‪9‬‬
‫تعريف بازاريابي در مکتب ”مديريتي“‬
‫‪ ‬بازاريابي يک فرايند اجتماعي و مديريتي‬
‫است که افراد و گروه ها بوسيلهء آن‬
‫نيازها و خواسته هاي خود را از طريق‬
‫توليد‪ ،‬عرضه و مبادلهء کاالهاي مفيد و با‬
‫ارزش با ديگران تامين مي کنند‪.‬‬
‫‪10‬‬
‫نياز‬
.‫عدم دسترسي به يک رضامندي اساسي است‬
‫نياز يك فقدان است‬
Maslow’s pyramid
Can marketers create needs?
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“Marketers do not create needs: Needs
preexist marketers. Marketers, along with
Social factors, influence wants. Marketers
might promote the idea that a Mercedes
Would satisfy a person’s need for social
status. They do not, however, create the
need for social status.” Kotler, p. 11.
11
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
5
Herzberg
McClelland
Selfactualization
(self-development
and realization)
4
Esteem needs
(self-esteem, recognition)
3
2
12
1
Social needs
(sense of belonging, love)
Safety needs
(security, protection)
Physiological needs
(food, water, shelter)
‫خواسته ها‬
.‫ ميل و عالقه خاصي هستند که برطرف کنندهء نياز است‬،‫ خواسته ها‬
‫ ؟؟؟؟‬
 Adapt Maslow’s pyramid of needs to “wants.” What type of
wants can you identify on each level? Can you increase wants
as you go up the ladder?
13
Other Theories
 Herzberg: Satisfiers vs. Dissatisfiers
 McClelland: Affiliation, Achievement, Power
14
‫تقاضا‬
‫خواستن برخي‬
‫‪ ‬تقاضا‪ ،‬همان‬
‫ِ‬
‫محصوالت خاص است که با‬
‫توانايي خريد همراه شده باشد‪.‬‬
‫يعني‪:‬‬
‫‪ ‬خواسته ‪ +‬قدرت خريد = تقاضا‬
‫‪15‬‬
Potential Product
Augmented Product
Expected Product
Basic Product
Core
Need
16
‫رضايتمندي و وفاداري‬
‫‪ ‬بين وفاداری و رضايتمندی تفاوت اساسی وجود دارد‪ .‬رضايتمندی‬
‫مربوط به برآورده شدن نيازها است‪ ،‬تفکر ذهنی منطقی و تحليل‬
‫ارزش‪.‬‬
‫‪ ‬وفاداری مربوط به رابطه عاطفی بين مشتريان شما و شرکت شما‬
‫است‪.‬‬
‫‪ ‬رضايتمندی آنچه که افراد بيان می کنند است‪ ،‬وفاداری آنچه که انجام‬
‫می دهند (‪.)Doren, 2006, p:1,2‬‬
‫‪ ‬وفاداری مشتری عموما در زمينه رفتارهای خريد‬
‫مشتری تعريف شده است‪ .‬در بعضی صنايع (مانند‬
‫خرده فروشی‪ ،‬خدمات)‪ ،‬يک مشتری وفادار از‬
‫طريق جزئيات خريدش تعريف شده است‪ :‬فراوانی‬
‫و ارزش پولی (‪.)Ou & Sia, 2003, p:1735‬‬
‫‪ ‬رضايتمندی صرف نمی تواند عاملی برای حفظ و‬
‫نگهداری مشتری و در نتيجه سودآوری تلقی شود‪،‬‬
‫تحقيقات بسياری نشان داده اند كه رضايتمندی كليد نهايی‬
‫موفقيت و سودآوری نيست‪ .‬در حقيقت مفاهيم بازاريابی‬
‫هم كه تا ديروز براين مهم تاكيد می ورزيد‪ ،‬ديگر آن را‬
‫به رسميت نمی شناسد بلكه امروزه تنها مشتری مشعوف‬
‫و شادمان و مشتری كه احساس تعلق خاطر و تعلق قلبی‬
‫پيدا كرده برای سازمانها‪ ،‬سرمايه هايی به شمار می روند‬
‫كه سودآوری و عمر طوالنی دارند‪.‬‬
‫‪Pantouvakis‬مدل رضایتمندی‬
‫این مدل به عواملی نظير ملموسات‪ ،‬تضمين‪ ،‬پاسخگویی به‬
‫مشتری‪ ،‬اطمينان و همدلی اشاره نموده و بيان می دارد که هر‬
‫یک از عوامل ذکر شده ارتباط متقابل با یکدیگر و با رضایتمندی‬
‫مشتری دارند‪.‬‬
‫ملموسات‬
‫تضمين‬
‫رضايتمندی‬
‫پاسخگويی‬
‫اطمينان‬
‫همدلی‬
‫شکل ‪ :4‬مدل رضایتمندی پانتوواکیس ()‪Pantouvakis, 2010, 373‬‬
‫ابزارهاي بازارياب‬
‫محصول‪/‬خدمت‬
‫كيفيت‬‫ايده محصول‬‫تحقيق و توسعه‬‫عمر محصول‬‫نام محصول‬‫توليد‬‫بسته بندي‬‫‪...-‬‬
‫قيمت‬
‫ترويج‬
‫توزيع‬
‫تقاضا‬‫سهم بازار‬‫قيمت تمام شده‬‫ادراكي‬‫فصلي‬‫مناقصه اي‬‫حداكثر سود‬‫‪...-‬‬
‫تبليغات‬‫فروش حضوري‬‫ترويج‬‫روابط عمومي‬‫بازاريابي مستقيم‬‫‪...-‬‬
‫درب كارخانه‬‫واسطه‬‫خرده فروشي‬‫اينترنتي‬‫‪...-‬‬
‫‪21‬‬
‫انواع تقاضا و واكنش هاي بازارياب‬
‫‪‬‬
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‫تقاضاي منفي‪ :‬هنگامي که مصرف کنندگان به کااليي بي ميلي نشان مي‬
‫دهند‪.‬‬
‫تقاضاي صفر‪ :‬هنگامي که مصرف کنندگان نسبت به وجود کاال آگاهي‬
‫ندارند‪.‬‬
‫تقاضاي پنهان‪ :‬نيازي که توسط کاالهاي موجود تامين نمي شود‪.‬‬
‫تقاضاي رو به پايين‪ :‬از رونق افتادن محصوالت‬
‫تقاضاي بي قاعده‪ :‬تقاضاي فصلي و يا بي قاعده‬
‫‪22‬‬
Conceptualization of Strategy
 China’s most enduring game is Wei Qi (pronounced way
chee).Wei qi translates as game of surrounding pieces, it
implies a concept of strategic encirclement.
 The players take turns placing stones (180 each) at any point
on the board, building up positions of strength, while
working to encircle and capture the opponent’s stones.
 Multiple contests take place simultaneously in different
regions of the board.
 The balance of forces shifts incrementally with each move, as
the players implement strategic plans and react to each
other’s initiatives.
23
 At the end of a well-played game, the board is filled by
partially interlocking areas of strength. The margin of
advantage is often slim and to the untrained eye, the identity
of the winner is not always immediately obvious.
 Chess on the other hand is about total victory. The purpose of
the game is checkmate, to put the opposing king into a
position where he cannot move without being destroyed. The
vast majority of games end in total victory achieved by
attrition or, more rarely a dramatic, skillful maneuver. The
only other possible outcome is a draw; meaning the
abandonment of the hope for victory by both parties.
24
25
 If chess is about the decisive battle, wei qi is about the
protracted campaign.
 The chess player aims for total victory. The wei qi players
seeks relative advantage.
 In chess the player always has the capability of the adversary
in front of him; all the pieces are always fully deployed.
 The wei qi player needs to assess not only the pieces on the
board but the reinforcements the adversary is in a position to
deploy.
26
 In chess the game usually begins as a struggle for the center




27
of the board.
Wei qi teaches the art of strategic encirclement.
Where the skillful chess player aims to eliminate his
opponent’s pieces in a series of head-on clashes, a talented
wei qi player moves into “empty” spaces on the board,
gradually mitigating the strategic potential of his opponent’s
pieces.
Chess produces single-mindedness.
Wei chi produces strategic flexibility.
Sun Tzu’s Art of War
 Western strategists test their maxims by victories in battles;
 Sun Tzu tests by victories where battles have become
unnecessary.
 For Sun Tzu, far better than challenging the enemy on the
field of battle is undermining an enemy’s morale or
maneuvering him into an unfavorable position from which
escape is impossible.
Ultimate Excellence lies
Not in winning every battle
But in defeating the enemy without ever fighting’
The highest form of warfare is to attack the enemy’s strategy
28
 To Sun Tzu, the strategist is akin to water flowing downhill,
automatically finding the swiftest and easiest course. A
successful commander waits before charging into battle.
 He shies away from an enemy’s strength; he spends his time
observing and cultivating changes in the strategic landscape.
 He studies the enemy’s preparations and his morale, husbands
resources and defines them carefully, and plays on his
opponent’s psychological weaknesses – until at last he
perceives the opportune moment to strike he enemy at his
weakest point.
29
 He then deploys his resources swiftly and suddenly, rushing
“downhill” along the path of least resistance, in an assertion of
superiority that careful timing and preparation have rendered
a fait accompli.
 The goal is to maneuver opponents into weakness while
building up one’s own shi, or strategic position.
30
Marketing Strategies
 Macro-Strategies
 Porter’s Generic: Cost leader, Differentiation, Niche
 Blue Ocean Strategy
 Tactical Strategies: War Strategies
 Growth Strategies: Ansoff
 Strategic Tools: BCG and GE Matrix
31
The Blue Ocean Strategy
 Value innovation is a new way of thinking about and
executing strategy that results in the creation of a blue ocean
and a break from the competition. Importantly, value
innovation defies one of the most commonly accepted
dogmas of competition-based strategy: the value-cost tradeoff.
 It is conventionally believed that companies can either create
greater value to customers at a higher cost or create
reasonable value at a lower cost. Here strategy is seen as
making a choice between differentiation and low cost. In
contrast, those that seek to create blue oceans pursue
differentiation and low cost simultaneously.
32
Cost Structure
Utility and Price
33
‫تفاوت هاي اساس ي دو استراتژي‬
‫استراتژي اقيانوس قرمز‬
‫استراتژي اقيانوس آبي‬
‫رقابت در بازارهاي موجود‬
‫ايجاد بازارهاي جديد‬
‫از ميان برداشتن رقيب‬
‫ايجاد فضاي بدون رقيب‬
‫پاسخگويي به نياز و تقاضاي كنوني بازار‬
‫ايجاد و تصاحب نياز و تقاضاي جديد‬
‫تعادل بين هزينه و فايده (تعديل)‬
‫ايجاد سود بيشتر و هزينه هاي كمتر‬
‫هماهنگي تمامي فعاليت هاي شركت با يكي از استراتژي هاي‬
‫قيمت پايين يا تمايز‬
‫هماهنگي تمامي فعاليت هاي شركت در جهت استفاده از مزيت‬
‫هاي هر دو استراتژي تمايز و قيمت پايين‬
‫‪34‬‬
35
Blue Ocean Strategy Tools
 The Strategy Canvas:
 It capture the current state of play in the known market space
(factors the industry currently competes on in products,
services, delivery…)
36
37
38
The Eliminate-Reduce-Raise-Create
 There is a third tool that is key to creation of blue oceans. It is a
supplementary analytic to the four actions framework called the
eliminate-reduce-raise-create grid.The grid pushes companies not only
to ask all four questions in the four actions framework but also to
act on all four to create a new value curve. By driving companies to fill
in the grid with the actions of eliminating and reducing as well as
raising and creating, the grid gives companies at least an
immediate benefit:
 It pushes them to simultaneously pursue differentiation and low
costs to break the value-cost trade-off.
39
40
Cirque du Soleil’s Case
41
Focus + Divergence + Compelling
Tagline
42
‫‪Work Groups‬‬
‫‪ ‬دو استراتژي هاي اقيانوس آبي و پورتر را مقايسه كنيد‪ .‬كداميك راهكار واقع‬
‫گرايانه تري براي رقابت در بازارهاي كنوني را ارائه مي دهد؟‬
‫‪ ‬نمونه هایی از شرکت هایی با استراتژی های رقابتی پورتر و اقیانوس آبی می‬
‫شناسید را معرفی فرمایید‪ .‬استدالل کنید که به چه دلیل این شرکت ها را‬
‫انتخاب کرده اید‪.‬‬
‫‪43‬‬
 Warfare based strategies - This scheme draws parallels
between marketing strategies and military strategies. There
are many types of marketing warfare strategies, but they can
be grouped into:
 Offensive marketing warfare strategies
 Defensive marketing warfare strategies
 Flanking marketing warfare strategies
 Guerrilla marketing warfare strategies
44
Offensive Marketing Warfare Strategy
 Offensive marketing warfare strategies are a type of
marketing warfare strategy designed to obtain an objective,
usually market share, from a target competitor. In addition to
market share, an offensive strategy could be designed to obtain
key customers, high margin market segments, or high loyalty
market segments.
45
Offensive Strategy
 Assess the strength of the target competitor. Consider the amount
of support that the target might muster from allies. Choose only
one target at a time.
 Find a weakness in the target’s position. Attack at this point.
Consider how long it will take for the target to realign their
resources so as to reinforce this weak spot.
 Launch the attack on as narrow a front as possible. Whereas a
defender must defend all their borders, an attacker has the
advantage of being able to concentrate their forces at one place.
 Launch the attack quickly. The element of surprise is worth more
than a thousand tanks.
46
Defensive Mktg Warfare Strategy
 Defensive marketing warfare strategies are a type of
marketing warfare strategy designed to protect a company's
market share, profitability, product positioning, or mind share.
47
Defensive Mktg Warfare Strategy
Always counter an attack with equal or greater force.
Defend every important market.
Be forever vigilant in scanning for potential attackers.
Assess the strength of the competitor. Consider the
amount of support that the attacker might muster from
allies.
The best defense is to attack yourself. Attack your weak
spots and rebuild yourself anew.




48
Flanking Mktg Warfare Strategies



49
Avoid areas of likely confrontation. A flanking move always
occurs in an uncontested area.
Make your move quickly and stealthfully. The element of
surprise is worth more than a thousand tanks.
Make moves that the target will not find threatening
enough to respond decisively to.
Guerrilla Mktg Warfare Strategy
 Wear down the enemy by a long series of minor attacks.
 Rather than engage in major battles, a guerrilla force is
divided into small groups that selectively attacks the
target at its weak points.
 To be effective, guerrilla teams must be able to hide
between strikes.
 The general form of the strategy is a sequence of
attacking, retreating, and hiding, repeated multiple times
in series.
50
Guerrilla Mktg Warfare Strategy
 Because you never attack the enemy’s main force, you
preserve your resources.
 It is very flexible and can be adapted to any situation, offensive
or defensive.
 It is very difficult to counter with conventional methods.
51
Guerrilla Mktg Warfare Strategy







52
targeted legal attacks on the competition
product comparison advertising
executive raiding
short-term alliances
selective price cuts
deliberate sabotage of the competitions test markets,
marketing research, advertising campaigns, or sales
promotions
orchestrating negative publicity for a competitor
Guerrilla Mktg Warfare Strategy
A guerrilla marketer must be flexible. They must be able to
change tactics very quickly : this may include abandoning a
market segment, product, product line, brand, business
model, or objective. Guerrillas are not ashamed to make a
strategic withdrawal.

53
Google vs. Microsoft
Case
54
MS / Google’s Missions
 Google's mission is to organize the world's information and
make it universally accessible and useful.
 AT MS, our mission and values are to help people and
businesses throughout the world realize their full potential.
55
Google’s Evolution of Services
















56
Search Engine and Adsense
Gmail
Orkut
Google Pack – Desktop search + News + Mozilla Browser…
Picasa
Google Earth-Maps
Google Library/Book Search
Google Scholar
Documents and Spreadsheet
Google Mobile
U-tube acquired for $2.6bn
Server Farms
Google acquired DoubleClick for $3bn
Google assisting Yahoo! with add services to boost revenue
Use of Web 2 Technologies
Android phone with T-Mobile and HTC
57
Microsoft’s Response
 Purchase of Groove Networks in ?
 Investment towards expansion of Internet services in 2005-






58
2006 by improving the Office Live experience
Retirement of Bill Gates in 2008
The Vista fiasco
Failed Gates’ advertisement campaign
Failed Yahoo deal
Announcement of Windows 7 with new networking features
Alliance with Nokia and the development of windows 8 for
mobile platform
Three Intensive Growth Strategies: Ansoff’s
Product/Market Expansion Grid
Existing
products
59
Existing
markets
1. Market
penetration
New
markets
2. Market
development
New
products
3. Product
development
4. Diversification
Market Penetration
 Improve market share: either through tactical marketing
(advertising, promotion, price reductions) or create
customer satisfaction and loyalty
 Increase product usage by asking fundamental questions: why
isn’t the product or service used more? (example of Nescafe
Cappuccino for young light users with sweet tooth). What
are the barriers to increased use? Who are the light users, and
can they be influenced to use more? What about the heavy
users? British Airways offers lounge access to heavy users
when not flying…
60
Market Penetration
 Provide reminder communication
 Provide a reason for more frequent use (updated headlines on





61
news websites? Or check stocks on Yahoo!?)
Make the use easier (Microwaveable containers?)
Provide incentives (Frequent-flyer miles)
Reduce undesirable consequences (Gentle shampoo for
frequent use)
Revitalize the brand (New VW Beetle)
Find new applications ( Jell-O Salads)
Product Development
 Line extensions: by adding features (flavored Yoghurt in tubes?)
 Developing new generation Products (Google is under threat
from Nextaris.com that combines search with social networking)
 Expand the product scope: broaden the use context (instead of
being in the orange juice business, a firm might choose to be in the
breakfast business. Or expand the pharmacy to include health
checkups, photo-processing, opticians,…)
 New products for existing markets: add compatible products
(Evian skincare, Gillete’s Venus shaving range, Mars’s chocolate
drinks)
62
Product Development
 To succeed in product development the following questions
will have to be answered:
 Will customers benefit from a systems capability or service
convenience made possible by a broad product line?
 Do potential manufacturing, marketing, or distribution cost
efficiencies exist?
 Can the brand be extended?
 Does the firm have the needed competencies and resources in
R&D, manufacturing, and marketing to add the various
products proposed?
63
Market Development
 Expand geographically
 Expand into new market segments
 Usage: the non-user
 Distribution channels
 Age
 Attribute preference
 Application-defined market (an airline offered a door-to-door,
same day package delivery – place order on the website, a
courier picks it up and delivers to the aircraft, another courier
delivers to the recipient)
64
Diversification
 Related diversification (the new business has meaningful
commonalities with the core business that can affect ROI)
 Exporting and exchanging assets and competencies (accounting
firm offering excess office space to legal services)
 Brand Name (A name with visibility, associations, perceived
quality, and loyalty – Disney into Disneylands into Disney
Channel). Ask the following questions:
 Does the brand fit the new product context?
 Does the brand add value to the offering?
 Will the extension enhance the brand name and image?
65
Diversification
 Related diversification (the new business has meaningful
commonalities with the core business that can affect ROI)
 Functional and operational skills (in mktg, in distribution, in
manufacturing, in R&D)
 Achieving economies of scale (increase efficiency – P&G and
Gilette sought economies of scale in communications and
distribution. In advertisement, P&G’s 4 billion pounds +
Gilette’s 1.25 billion pounds would enable wider reach and give
them more leverage with large chains over margin pressures)
66
Diversification
 Unrelated diversification (with the objective of generate profit
streams that are larger, less uncertain, and more stable) with the
following incentives:









67
Generate cash flow
Enter business area with high ROI prospects
Obtain a bargain price for a business
Potential to refocus a firm
Risk reduction
Tax implications and reductions
Obtaining liquid assets
Vertical integration
Defending against Takeover
Diversification
 Risks of unrelated diversification:
 Attention may be diverted from core business
 Managing new business may be difficult
 The new business may be overvalued
68
Market Growth Rate
The Boston Consulting Group’s GrowthShare Matrix
Stars
20%18%16%14%12%10%8%6%4%2%0
4
3
5
?2
?
1
Dogs
Cash cow
8
6
10x
69
Question marks
7
4x
2x 1.5x
1x
.5x .4x .3x .2x .1x
Relative Market Share
Market Attractiveness: Competitive- Position
Portfolio Classification
MARKET ATTRACTIVENESS
High
Low
Medium
Strong
70
BUSINESS STRENGTH
Medium
3.67
5.00
5.00
Weak
2.33
1.00
Joints
Aerospace
fittings
Hydraulic
pumps
3.67
Clutches
2.33
Flexible
diaphragms
Fuel
pumps
Relief
valve
1.00
Invest/grow
Selectivity/earnings
Harvest/divest
71
‫ضريب اهميت‬
‫‪ ‬جذابيت بازار‬
‫‪ ‬اندازه كلي بازار (‪)0/2‬‬
‫‪ ‬نرخ رشد ساالنه بازار (‪)0/2‬‬
‫‪ ‬سابقه در صد سودآوري گذشته‬
‫(‪)0/15‬‬
‫‪ ‬شدت رقابت (‪)0/15‬‬
‫‪ ‬ضروريات تكنولوژيك (‪)0/15‬‬
‫‪ ‬آسيب پذيري تورمي (‪)0/05‬‬
‫‪ ‬ضروريات انرژي (‪)0/05‬‬
‫‪ ‬تاثير زيست محيطي (‪)0/05‬‬
‫‪ ‬اجتماعي‪/‬سياسي‪/‬قانوني (در‬
‫حد قابل قبول)‬
‫‪ ‬توانمندي فعاليت شركت‬
‫‪‬‬
‫‪‬‬
‫‪‬‬
‫‪‬‬
‫‪‬‬
‫‪‬‬
‫‪‬‬
‫‪‬‬
‫‪‬‬
‫‪‬‬
‫‪‬‬
‫‪‬‬
‫سهم بازار (‪)0/1‬‬
‫رشد بازار (‪)0/15‬‬
‫كيفيت محصول (‪)0/1‬‬
‫شهرت نام تجاري (‪)0/1‬‬
‫شبكه توزيع (‪)0/05‬‬
‫اثربخشي تبليغاتي (‪)0/05‬‬
‫ظرفيت توليد (‪)0/05‬‬
‫بهره وري توليد (‪)0/05‬‬
‫هزينه تمام شده واحد (‪)0/05‬‬
‫مواد اوليه (‪)0/15‬‬
‫عملكرد تحقيق و توسعه (‪)0/10‬‬
‫كاركان مديريتي (‪)0/05‬‬
‫‪72‬‬
Hammel and Prahalad’s Inside-out
Approach to Strategy
 The Outside-in approach (such as the Five Forces
model from Porter) places the market, the
competition, and the customer at the starting
point of the strategy process. The Core
Competence model does the opposite by stating
that in the long run, competitiveness derives
from an ability to build a Core Competence, at
lower cost and more speedily than
competitors.
73
3 Tests for Identifying a Core
Competence:
1. Provides potential access to a wide
variety of markets.
2. Makes a significant contribution to the
benefits of the product as perceived by
the customer.
3. A CC should be difficult for
competitors to imitate
74
Building a Core Competence
 A Core Competence is built through a process of
75
continuous improvement and enhancement. It
should constitute the focus for corporate strategy.
At this level, the goal is to build world leadership
in the design and development of a particular
class of product functionality. Top management
can not be just another layer of accounting, but
must add value by articulating the strategic
architecture that guides the process of
competence building.
 Once top management (with the help of Strategic
Business Units managers) have identified an allembracing Core Competence, it must ask
businesses to identify the projects and the people
that are closely connected with it. Corporate
auditors should perform an audit of the location,
number, and quality of the people related to the
CC. CC carriers should be brought together
frequently to share ideas.
76
Core Rigidities
 Care must be taken not to let core competencies
develop into core rigidities. A Corporate
Competence is difficult to learn, but is difficult to
unlearn as well. Companies that have spared no
effort to achieve a competence, sometimes
neglect new market circumstances or demands.
They risk to be locked in by choices that were
made in the past.
77
Hammel and Prahalad’s Inside-out
Approach to Strategy
 The Core Competence may result in unanticipated products.
The real sources of advantage are to be found in
management's ability to consolidate corporate-wide
technologies and production skills into competencies,
through which individual businesses can adapt quickly to
changing circumstances. A Core Competence can be any
combination of specific, inherent, integrated and applied
knowledge, skills and attitudes.
78
The Value-Delivery Process
(a) Traditional physical process sequence
Make the product
Design Procure Make
product
Sell the product
Price Sell Advertise/
promote Distribute Service
(b) Value creation & delivery sequence
Choose the Value
79
Strategic marketing
Provide the Value
Communicate the Value
Tactical marketing
Factors Influencing Company
Marketing Strategy Marketing
intermediaries
Demographic/
economic
environment
Technical/
physical
environment
Product
Suppliers
Place
Target Price
customers
Publics
Promotion
Social/
cultural
environment
Political/
legal
environment
Competitors
80
‫تحليل محيط كالن‬
‫‪‬‬
‫‪‬‬
‫‪‬‬
‫‪‬‬
‫‪‬‬
‫‪‬‬
‫تحليل روندهاي اقتصادي ملي و بين المللي‬
‫تحليل روندهاي جمعيتي‬
‫تحليل محيط قانوني‬
‫تحليل محيط تكنولوژيك‬
‫تحليل محيط سياسي و آثار آن‬
‫تحليل محيط علمي و فرهنگي‪-‬اجتماعي‬
‫‪81‬‬
‫تحليل حوزهء رقابت به تفكيك صنعت‬
‫و به تفكيك محصول‬
‫‪ ‬تعيين رقباي اصلي‪ ،‬شناسايي خط مش هاي اصلي ايشان‬
‫‪ ‬تجزيه و تحليل نقاط قوت و ضعف رقباي اصلي‬
‫‪ ‬دستيابي به اطالعات ويژگي هاي محصول‪ ،‬قيمت‪ ،‬روش هاي ترويج‬
‫و خدمات به مشتري‬
‫‪ ‬دستيابي به اطالعات دقيق تر در مورد گروه مشتريان رقباي‬
‫استراتژيك‬
‫‪ ‬در صورت وجود رقباي بالقوه‪ ،‬شناسايي رقبايي كه در شرف ورود به‬
‫بازار هستند‬
‫‪ ‬كدام روندها مي تواند صحنهء رقابت را تغيير دهد و به چه صورت؟‬
‫‪82‬‬
‫تحليل بازار‬
‫‪‬‬
‫‪‬‬
‫‪‬‬
‫‪‬‬
‫‪‬‬
‫‪‬‬
‫‪‬‬
‫‪‬‬
‫‪‬‬
‫‪‬‬
‫‪‬‬
‫نيل به تخميني از فروش كل صنعت در ايران‪ ،‬منطقه و جهان‬
‫تخميني از پتانسيل بازار (تعداد مشتريان بالقوه برحسب صنعت * متوسط فروش‬
‫بر حسب صنعت)‬
‫سهم بازار شركت‬
‫نيل به تخميني از سهم رقبا و وضعيت ايشان بر حسب گروه محصول و صنعت‬
‫حجم فروش سال جاري و نرخ تغيير نسبت به سال هاي گذشته (مقايسه اين نرخ‬
‫با نرخ رشد صنعت در سال هايي كه اطالعات در مورد آن موجود مي باشد)‬
‫هزينهء متغير و هزينهء سربار‬
‫فروش كل‬
‫سود كل‬
‫سود خالص عملياتي كل‬
‫تعداد فروشندگان‬
‫تعداد كل كوششهاي فروش ‪/‬تعداد كوشش هاي منجر به قرارداد ‪ +‬تحليل از‬
‫وضعيت فرو ش و علل ناكامي در فروش‬
‫‪83‬‬
‫تقسيم بازار‬
D efin e th e M arket
S egm en t th e M arket
C h oose A ttractive S egm en ts
D esign a M arketin g m ix
A ppeal to th e Targets
P osition ou r O fferin g
B asis of S egm en tation
G eograph ic
D em ograph ic
Psychographic
B eh avioral
(U se, ben efit)
G eograph y
S ize
In du stry
S oph istication
B u yin g beh avior
A ttractive S egm en ts
M easu rable
S u bstan tial
A ccessible
D ifferentiable
(h om ogen ou s w ith in ,
h eterogen ou s betw een )
A ction able
1.
2.
3.
Choose segments to
target
Choose those to avoid
Consider combining
Designing a Marketing Mix to
Appeal to Targets
D efin e th e M arket
Segm en t th e M arket
C h oose A ttractive S egm en ts
D esign a M arketin g M ix to
A ppeal to th e Targets
Produc t
Pric e
Pla c e
Position ou r O fferin g
In th e m in ds of cu stom ers
A gain st com petitor's offerin gs
Prom otion
Segmentation
 A market segment consists of group of customers who share
a similar sets of wants.
 The marketer’s task is to identify the segments and decide
which ones to target.
 Marketer does not create segments; they are already there!
86
87
Profiling of market segmentation
according to “self” concepts:
 The automotive market showed four segments: participants,
ego show-offs, functionalists, do-it-yourselfers;
 the wrist-watch market in which five segments were
identified: practicals, functionals, classicals, fashionables and
sportspeople.
88
Segmentation in Practice
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
89
Needs-Based Segmentation: Group customers based on similar needs and benefits
sought by customer in solving a particular consumption problem.
Segment Identification: For each needs-based segment, determine which
demographics, lifestyles, and usage behaviors make the segment distinct and
identifiable (actionable).
Segment Attractiveness: Using predetermined segment attractiveness criteria
(market growth, competitive intensity, and market access), determine overall
attractiveness of each segment.
Segment Profitability: Determine profitability.
Segment Positioning: For each segment, create a “value proposition and productprice positioning based on that segment’s unique customer needs and characteristics.
Segment “Acid Test”: Create “segment storyboards” to test the attractiveness of each
segment’s positioning strategy.
Mktg-Mix Strategy: Expand segment positioning strategy to include all aspects of the
marketing mix: product, price, promotion, and place.
 Consumer Behavior 2: Some Segmentation Models
 Consumer behavior 1: Mind of the market
90
Marketing Mix--Product Decisions
 New Product Development (Creativity)
 Product Categories
 Brand
 Packaging
91
‫مديريت فرآيند توليد خدمت‪/‬کاالي جديد‬
‫‪92‬‬
‫سه جزء اصلی خالقيت‬
‫انگيزه‬
‫مهارت‬
‫دانش‬
‫تفکر‬
‫خالق‬
‫‪93‬‬
‫روشهاي ايجاد تفكرات خالق‬
‫‪‬‬
‫ارجحيت تالش وبيقراري به رضايت‬
‫تشخيص بي نظمي و توجه به امور غيرعادي‬
‫ايجاد فرصت براي بازي کردن با اطالعات ‪-‬بازي با داده هاي تصادفي‬
‫نتايج هر كاري شروع تازه كاري ديگر‬
‫‪‬‬
‫به چالش كشيدن روش هاي موجود – ازمد انداختن‬
‫عدم توجه بيش از حد به يك ايده –چالندن جوجه قبلي‬
‫شورواشتياق به همراه متانت نسبت به ايده هاي جديد‬
‫داشتن جسارت براي تفكرات خود وايده هاي نو‬
‫طرح سواالت درست وشناخت حاشيه ها‬
‫خودداري ازكنار گذاشتن پيش ازموعد ايده ها‬
‫‪‬‬
‫‪‬‬
‫‪‬‬
‫‪‬‬
‫‪‬‬
‫‪‬‬
‫‪‬‬
‫‪‬‬
‫‪94‬‬
95
‫دوره عمر کاال‬
‫)‪Product life cycle(PLC‬‬
‫‪ ‬عمر هيچ کااليي ابدي نخواهد بود‪.‬‬
‫‪ ‬توليدکنندگان به دنبال افزايش طول عمر و سودآوري کاالي خود‬
‫‪96‬‬
‫ويژگيهاي چرخه عمر محصول در هر يك از مراحل‬
‫ويژگيها‬
‫معرفي‬
‫رشد‬
‫اشباع‬
‫سير قهقرايي‬
‫فروش‬
‫فروش اندك‬
‫فروش به سرعت‬
‫افزايش مييابد‬
‫فروش به نقطه اوج‬
‫ميرسد‬
‫فروش كاهش مييابد‬
‫سود‬
‫منفي‬
‫سود افزايش مييابد‬
‫سود باالست‬
‫سود رو به كاهش‬
‫ميرود‬
‫شركتهاي رقيب‬
‫اندك‬
‫عده آنها افزايش‬
‫مييابد‬
‫شركتها به تدريج صحنه به سرعت كاهش مييابد‬
‫رقابت را ترك ميكنند‬
‫هدفهاي بازاريابي هر يك از مراحل چرخه عمر محصول‬
‫هدفهاي بازاريابي‬
‫معرفي‬
‫رشد‬
‫اشباع‬
‫سير قهقرايي‬
‫اهداف‬
‫آگاه نمودن مردم‬
‫از محصول و‬
‫آزمودن بازار‬
‫به حداكثر رساندن‬
‫سهم بازار‬
‫به حداكثر رساندن سود و‬
‫دفاع از سهم بازار‬
‫كاهش دادن هزينهها و‬
‫ارائه انگيزهاي نام و‬
‫نشان تجاري‬
Products can be classified into 3 groups
according to Durability &Tangibility:
 Nondurable goods:
 Example of soda and soap
 Wide distribution
 Small markup
 Advertise heavily to induce trial and build preference
99
Products can be classified on the basis
of shopping habits
 Convenience Goods
 Shopping Goods
 Specialty Goods
 Unsought Goods (gravestone, insurance, encyclopedia)
require advertising and personal selling effort
100
Classification of Industrial Goods:
Costliness and how they enter production
 Materials and parts: enter the manufacturer’s product
completely (raw and/or manufactured) – price, reliability,
and service are key, brand & ads not very important
 Capital items: long-lasting goods that facilitate the
development of finished products like installations and
equipment – emphasize quality, feature, price & service
 Supplies and business services – short term goods that
facilitate development of finished products – distribution
becomes important + price and service
101
Product Differentiation
 Form – size, shape, physical appearance
 Features
 Performance quality: low, average, high, superior? It’s the level at





102
which the product’s primarily characteristics operate. Look at
customer & competitors…
Conformance quality: does it meet promised specification?
Durability: operating life under normal and stressful conditions
Reliability: not malfunction or fail over a specific time period
Repairability: ease of fixing a product when it malfunctions and
fails
Style: look and feel (aesthetics)
‫داليل اهميت برند برای مصرف‬
‫كننده‬
‫‪‬‬
‫‪‬‬
‫‪‬‬
‫‪‬‬
‫‪‬‬
‫‪‬‬
‫ايجاد انتخاب‪ :‬برندها به مصرف کنندگان وسيله ای برای انتخاب ارائه ميدهند‪.‬تنها وجود برندها است که موجب می شود يک محصول‬
‫از محصول ديگر به آسانی متمايز شود‪ .‬مشتريان در مقايسه با انواع کاالهاي مصرفی ‪،‬درباره محصوالت وخدمات با برند مشخص‬
‫اطالعات بيشتري دارند‪ .‬برندها مصرف كنندگان را قادر مي سازند كه سرچشمه و سازنده اصلي كاال و محصول را شناسايي كنند و مي‬
‫توانند مسئولين اصلي توليد و يا توزيع محصول را بشناسند و مهمتر از همه اينكه برندها معانی خاصی را برای مصرف كننده به وجود‬
‫می آورند و با توجه به تجربه های گذشته درارتباط با محصول و برنامه های بازاريابی آن در طی ساليان‪ ،‬مصرف كنندگان درمی يابند‬
‫كه كدام برند احتياجات آنها را برآورده می سازد‪.‬‬
‫تصميم گيري آسان‪ :‬برندها‪،‬بيش از همه خريد را آسانتر می سازد‪ .‬زيرا بسته بندی عالمت گذاری شده تشخيص سريع محصول را‬
‫تسهيل می کند‪.‬ازنقطه نظر اقتصادي‪ ،‬برندها اين امكان را براي مصرف كننده فراهم می سازند كه هزينه هاي جستجوي محصول‪،‬كاهش‬
‫يابد‪ .‬اين عمل (هم به صورت درونی) ازنقطه نظر زمانی كه الزم است برای يك كاال تفكر كنند(و هم به صورت بيرونی) ازنقطه نظر‬
‫ميزان زمانی كه برای انتخاب يك محصول الزم است جستجو كند انجام می گيرد‪.‬‬
‫ارائه دهنده ضمانت کيفی و کاهش خطر‪ :‬وقتی مشتريان به دفعات محصولی با يک برند خريداري می کنند‪ ،‬به سرعت نسبت به کيفيت و‬
‫ارزش پولی آن برند احساس خاصی پيدا ميکنند اين احساس به مشتری کمک ميکند که از خريد محصوالت امتحان نشده خودداری کند‪.‬‬
‫مصرف كنندگان تازماني كه منافع و سودمندي كه درنتيجه خريد يک برند خاص‪ ،‬بدست می آورد‪ ،‬فراهم گردد به ادامه خريد آن برند‬
‫تمايل نشان می دهند‪.‬‬
‫شناسايی خصوصيات و ويژگی های خاص محصول‪ :‬برندها نقش قابل توجهي درجهت شناسايی خصوصيات و ويژگی های خاص‬
‫محصولی به مصرف كننده ايفا مي نمايند‪.‬‬
‫كاهش ميزان ريسک درتصميم گيری‪ :‬برندهامی توانند موجبات كاهش ميزان ريسک درتصميم گيری درمورد محصول رافراهم سازند‪.‬‬
‫مصرف كنندگان ممكن است درفرآيند انتخاب يک محصول يا خدمت با ريسک و خطرهای متداولی مواجه گردند‪.‬‬
‫ارائه دهنده دوستی و رضايت‪ :‬فوايد روانشناسی برندها‪ ،‬از فوايد عملی محصول مهمتر است‪ .‬در بعضی موارد مصرف کنندگان ارتباط‬
‫محکمی با برندها بر قرار می کنند که منجر به دوستی و حتی وابستگی آنها به برند ميشود‪ .‬از آنجايی که ارتباط برند با روح مصرف‬
‫کننده از بين رفتنی نيست‪ ،‬ارزش نمادها و اسامی افزايش می يابد‪ .‬نمادها واسامی عاملی برای ياد آوری خاطرات و احساسات مربوط به‬
‫برند می شوند‪ .‬بنابراين برندها می توانند احساسات و رضايت شديدي را به وجود آورد (‪. )Palotemporal ،2003 ،p.45‬‬
‫‪103‬‬
Brand Personality Dimensions of
Jennifer Aaker
 Sincerity (down-to-earth, honest,
wholesome, cheerful)
 Excitement (daring, spirited, imaginative,
up-to-date)
 Competence (reliable, intelligent,
successful)
 Sophistication (upper class, charming)
 Ruggedness (outdoorsy, tough)
104















105
Down-to-earth = down-to-earth, family-oriented, small-town
Honest = honest, sincere, real
Wholesome = wholesome, original
Cheerful = cheerful, sentimental, friendly
Daring = daring, trendy, exciting
Spirited = spirited, cool, young
Imaginative = imaginative, unique
Up to date = up to date, independent, contemporary
Reliable = reliable, hard working, secure
Intelligent = intelligent, technical, corporate
Successful = successful, leader, confident
Upper class = upper class, glamorous, good looking
Charming = charming, feminine, smooth
Outdoorsy = outdoorsy, masculine, Western
Tough = tough, rugged
‫وفاداري نسبت به نام و نشان تجاري‬
‫كيفيت درك شده نام و نشان تجاري‬
‫تداعي از نام و نشان تجاري‬
‫آگاهي از نام و نشان تجاري‬
‫‪106‬‬
‫مدل ارزش ويژه نام تجاري ديويد آكر‬
‫‪ ‬آگاهی از نام و سمبل تجاری‬
‫‪ ‬يکی از جنبههای ارزش ويژه نام تجاری آگاهی و قابل رويت بودن‬
‫نام و سمبل تجاری است‪ .‬يافتهها نشان میدهد که مردم تمايل به خريد‬
‫نام آشنا دارند‪ .‬زيرا آنها با نامهای آشنا راحتترند‪ .‬اين فرض نيز‬
‫وجود دارد که نامهای تجاری که مشهور هستند احتماالً قابل اعتماد و‬
‫کيفيت موجهی دارند‪ .‬اغلب يک نام تجاری شناخته شده بهتر از نامهای‬
‫ناشناخته برگزيده میشود (کاپفرر‪ .)1997،‬عامل آگاهی از اين نظر‬
‫مهم است که يک نام تجاری در درجه اول بايد وارد مالحظات شخص‬
‫شود (بايد يکی از نامهای تجاری باشد که برای خريد ارزيابی میشود)‬
‫برای همين يک نام تجاری ناشناخته معموالً شانس کمی برای خريده‬
‫شدن دارد(آکر‪.)1991 ،‬‬
‫‪107‬‬
‫‪ ‬کیفیت درک شده‬
‫‪ ‬نام تجاری با کيفيت درک شده توسط مشتری پيونده خورده است‪،‬‬
‫ادراکی که تنها کيفيت کلی را نشان میدهد و ضرورتا ٌ بر مبنای دانش‬
‫مشتريان در مورد ويژگیهای جزيی آن نيست‪ .‬درک کيفيت ممکن‬
‫است تا حدی در صنايع مختلف متفاوت باشد(کلر‪ .)2003،‬کيفيت باال‬
‫مستقيما ٌ بر تصميم خريد و وفاداری تاثير دارد و از قيمت و حاشيه‬
‫سود بيشتر‪ ،‬حمايت میکند‪ .‬همچنين میتواند پايهای برای گسترش‬
‫دامنه نام و نشان تجاری باشد(آکر‪.)2000 ،‬‬
‫‪108‬‬
‫‪ ‬مجموعهای از تداعیگرها‬
‫‪ ‬ارزش يک نام و نشان تجاری اغلب مبتنی بر تداعیگرهايی است که‬
‫به آن پيوند خورده است‪ .‬تداعیگرهايی مانند نام رونالد مک دونالد‬
‫میتواند نگرش يا احساس مثبتی را در مورد نام تجاری که به آن‬
‫منسوب شده ايجاد کند(شوکر و همکاران‪ .)1994،‬تداعی زمينههای‬
‫کاربردی مانند آسپيرين و حمله قلبی میتواند دليلی برای خريد ايجاد‬
‫کند که نهايتا ٌ منجر به جذب مشتريان میشود‪ .‬تداعیگر قوی میتواند‬
‫پايهای برای گسترش دامنه نام تجاری شود(آکر‪.)2000 ،‬‬
‫‪ ‬تداعي در سه بعد صورت مي گيرد‪ :‬دارايی ها‪ ،‬منافع و نگرش‬
‫‪109‬‬
Brand equity, as defined by Keller occurs when a brand is known and has some
strong, favorable and unique associations in a consumer’s memory.
In this branding ladder, each step is dependent on successfully achieving the previous – from
brand identity to brand meaning, brand responses and finally brand relationships.
These steps in turn consist of six brand building blocks – salience, performance,
imagery, judgments, feelings and resonance.
110
111
The ultimate aim is to reach the pinnacle– resonance – where a completely harmonious
relationship exists between customers and the brand.
Keller’s argument is as follows. The first step in building a strong brand is to
ensure the correct brand identity. The purpose is to create an identification of the brand
with customers, and an association in their minds with a specific product class or need.
To do this, brand salience must exist, which represents aspects of brand awareness
and the range of purchase and consumption situations in which the brand comes to
mind.
The salience building block is therefore made up of two sub-dimensions – need
satisfaction and category identification.
Movie
112
Branding Options
Branding Strategies
Producer Strategy
Strategy of
Generic
(Without
name)
113
Strategy of
Mixed
Branding
Strategy of
Whole sellers
& Retail
Sellers
Strategy of
Different
Branding for
Different
Products
Strategy of
Unit Branding
for different
products
114
‫برند و تجربه مصرف‬
‫‪ ‬در دنيايی که برندها حکمرانی می کنند‪ ،‬محصوالت نه ديگر مجموعه‬
‫ای از ويزگی های کارکردی‪ ،‬که ابزاری برای ايجاد و بهبود تجربه‬
‫های مثبت در زندگی مشتريان به حساب می ايند‪.‬‬
‫‪ ‬انسان امروزی خود را در استانه عصر جديدی از اقتصاد‪ ،‬يعنی‬
‫اقتصاد تجربه می بيند‪ .‬عصری که در آن همه کسب و کارها بايد به‬
‫دنبال هماهنگ کردن وقايع به ياد ماندنی به منظور خلق تجربه ای‬
‫ماندگار برای مشتريان خود باشند‪.‬‬
‫‪115‬‬
‫چهار بنيان بازاریابی تجربه ای‬
‫اشميت‬
‫‪ ‬تمرکز بر تجربه مشتری‪:‬‬
‫‪ ‬بازاريابی تجربه ای به جای تمرکز محدود روی مزايا و ويژگی های‬
‫کارکردی‪ ،‬روی تجربه مشتريان متمرکز است‪ .‬تجربه درنتيجه مواجه‬
‫شدن و زندگی کردن با اشياء حاصل می شود و با خلق ارزش های‬
‫حسی‪ ،‬هيجانی‪ ،‬رفتاری‪ ،‬و رابطه ايست که می تواند جايگزين ارزش‬
‫های کارکرديی شود‪ ،‬همراه است‪.‬‬
‫‪116‬‬
‫چهار بنيان بازاریابی تجربه ای‬
‫اشميت‬
‫‪ ‬تمرکز روی مصرف به عنوان یک تجربه کلی‬
‫‪ ‬نه فقط برای جلب نظر مشتريان و ايجاد انگيزه برای خريد‪ ،‬بازاريابی‬
‫تجربه ای در پی اين است که چگونه محصول‪ ،‬بسته بندی‪ ،‬و تبليغات‬
‫مقدم بر خود مصرف‪ ،‬کليت تجربه مشتری را بهبود می بخشد‪.‬‬
‫‪117‬‬
‫چهار بنيان بازاریابی تجربه ای‬
‫اشميت‬
‫‪‬‬
‫‪‬‬
‫‪‬‬
‫‪‬‬
‫مشتریات موجوداتی احساسی و عقلی هستند‬
‫همانقدر که مشتريان موجوداتی منطقی هستند‪ ،‬تحت تاثير احساسات و‬
‫هيجانات نيز هستند و در حقيقت تجربه مصرف به سمت احساسات و‬
‫لذت ها نشانه می رود‪.‬‬
‫ابزارهای این نوع بازاریابی‪ ،‬ترکیبی هستند‬
‫بازاريابی تجربه ای از ابزارهای کمی و کيفی و آميزه ای از آنها که‬
‫در شاخه های مختلف بازاريابی مورد استفاده قرار می گيرند با انگيزه‬
‫متفاوت استفاده می کند‬
‫‪118‬‬
‫اجزاء تجربه‬
‫‪‬‬
‫‪‬‬
‫‪‬‬
‫‪‬‬
‫‪‬‬
‫حواس‪ :‬نشانه های بصری و کالمی‪ ،‬استفاده درست از رنگ ها و‬
‫تصاوير جذاب‬
‫احساسات‪ :‬لذت و غرور و خوشحالی‬
‫فکر‪ :‬ترغيب مشتری به تفکر‬
‫عمل‪ :‬بروز نوع خاصی از سبک زندگی مشتری و ارائه روش های‬
‫جديد از کار‪ ،‬سبک زندگی و تعامل را معرفی کند‪.‬‬
‫ارتباط‪ :‬ارتباط با فرهنگ ها و افراد مرجع در جهت القای حس هويت‬
‫اجتماعی‬
‫‪119‬‬
Tips on good packaging of the Product
 Bump up the visibility of the package
 Choose a color that contrasts with competitors
 Improve information on package
 Use the Web for virtual packaging
 Give your package an emotional appeal
 Add some excitement to the package (Coke wave)
 Increase the functionality of the package
120
Case: The New Coke Design
 When David Butler joined Coca-Cola (KO) almost five years
ago, he was given, as he tells it, "the Post-it Note mandate:
We need to do more with design. Go figure it out."
121
 "If I'm at a meeting with manufacturing people, I'll say: 'How
can we make the can feel colder, longer?'," he says as an
example. "Or, 'How can we make the cup easier to hold?'" In
other words, he talks about the benefits of smart design in a
language to which those he's talking to can relate.
 Butler leads a team of 60 designers—a mix of graphic and
industrial designers, some poached from companies such as
Apple (AAPL), Nike (NKE), MTV (VIA), Target (TGT), and
Electrolux—at four centers around the world.
122
 When Butler reviewed the state of design at Coca-Cola on his
arrival, evaluating everything from the branding created for
the then-recent 2004 Olympics in Athens to the process that
the company's 300-plus bottling partners went through to
get approval for new bottle designs to the customer
experience of buying a Coke from a vending machine, he
found a lot that needed fixing.
123
 Coca-Cola was a global company with 450 brands, more than
300 different models of vending machines, innumerable
bottling and retail partners, and no consistent global design
standards.
124
 Butler addressed his efforts on identifying
basic problems that design can solve. His
strategy has focused on three areas critical
to Coca-Cola—brand identity, user
experience, and sustainability.
125
126
Supersizing and Downsizing
Packages: A Research by Insead
 If a company increases the
size of its packaging in one
dimension, consumers
perceive it to be much larger
and so assume they’re getting
a better deal and are more
likely to buy it. If a company
increases the product size by
the same volume but the
package is expanded in three
dimensions – not just one –
consumers don't perceive as
big of a change.
Services Differentiation (7Ps: People,
Physical Appearance, Processes + 4Ps
 Ordering ease
 Delivery
 Installation
 Customer training
 Customer consulting
 Maintenance and repair
128
‫خدمت‬
‫‪‬‬
‫‪‬‬
‫‪‬‬
‫‪‬‬
‫‪‬‬
‫خدمت را فعاليت يا منفعتی نا محسوس و لمس نشدنی تعريف می کنيم که يک طرف به طرف ديگر عرضه می کند و‬
‫مالکيت چيزی را نيز به دنبال ندارد ‪.‬‬
‫خدمات اعم از عمومی و خصوصی ‪ ،‬انتفاعی و غيرانتفاعی ‪ 4‬ويژگی مهم دارد ‪.‬‬
‫نامحسوس بودن ( ‪) Intangibility‬‬
‫يعنی نمی توان آن را قبل از خريد ‪ ،‬ديد‪ ،‬لمس کرد ‪ ،‬مزمزه کرد و ‪ . ...‬مثالً بانکی را در نظر بگيريد که می خواهد‬
‫اين ذهنيت را در مشتری ايجاد کند كه دارای خدماتی سريع و عالی است ‪ .‬بانک بايد اين حس را در تمام سطوح‬
‫تماس با او محسوس گرداند ‪ .‬در ظاهر بانک ‪ ،‬نوع لباس پوشيدن کارکنان ‪ ،‬موسيقی ماليم و ‪. ...‬‬
‫تفکيک نا پذيری ( ‪) Inseparability‬‬
‫‪ ‬کاالهای محسوس و لمس شدنی ‪ ،‬پس از توليد انبار می شوند ‪ ،‬فروخته می شوند و ممکن است مدتی طول بکشد تا‬
‫به مصرف برسد ‪ .‬اما در مورد خدمات وضع به گونه ای ديگر است ‪ .‬خدمت ابتدا فروخته می شود ‪ ،‬سپس توليد می‬
‫شود و همزمان به مصرف می رسد ‪ .‬بنابراين نوعی ارتباط متقابل ميان خدمت دهنده و مشتری به عنوان شکل‬
‫خاصی از بازاريابی به وجود می آيد ‪.‬‬
‫‪ ‬تغييرپذيری ( ‪) Inconsistency‬‬
‫‪ ‬کيفيت خدمات بسيار متغير است ‪ .‬به اين معنا که کيفيت يک خدمت به شخص ارائه کننده و زمان و مکان و نحوۀ‬
‫ارائۀ خدمت از سوی او بستگی دارد ‪.‬‬
‫‪ ‬فناپذيری ( ‪) Inventory‬‬
‫‪ ‬خدمات فناپذير است ‪ .‬يعنی خدمات را نمی توان برای فروش يا مصرف بعدی انبار کرد ‪.‬‬
Are there similarities between
products and services?
130
Price Decisions
M a rke tin g M ix
Produc t
Pric e
O bje c tive
S tra te gie s
T a c tic s
Pla c e
Prom otion
Setting the Price
 In setting a product’s price, marketers follow a six-step






132
procedure:
(1) selecting the pricing objective;
(2) determining demand;
(3) estimating costs;
(4) analyzing competitors’ costs, prices, and offers;
(5) selecting a pricing method; and
(6) selecting the final price.
1. Pricing Objectives
 Survival.
 Maximum current profit.To maximize current profits, companies estimate the
demand and costs associated with alternative prices and then choose the
price that produces maximum current profit, cash flow, or return on
investment.
 Maximum market share. Firms such as Texas Instruments choose this objective
because they believe that higher sales volume will lead to lower unit
costs and higher long-run profit. With this market-penetration pricing, the
firms set the lowest price, assuming the market is price sensitive.
 Maximum market skimming. Many companies favor setting high prices to “skim”
the market.
 Product-quality leadership. Companies such as Maytag that aim to be productquality leaders will offer premium products at premium prices. Because
they offer top quality plus innovative features that deliver wanted
benefits, these firms can charge more.
133
2. Determining Demand
 Companies can use one of three basic methods to estimate their
demand curves.
 The first involves statistically analyzing past prices, quantities sold,
and other factors to estimate their relationships. However,
building a model and fitting the data with the proper techniques
calls for considerable skill.
 The second approach is to conduct price experiments, as when
Bennett and Wilkinson systematically varied the prices of several
products sold in a discount store and observed the results. An
alternative here is to charge different prices in similar territories
to see how sales are affected.
 The third approach is to ask buyers to state how many units they
would buy at different proposed prices. One problem with this
method is that buyers might understate their purchase
134
‫انديشه و بازار‬
‫•آفرينش و بهبود‬
‫•برنامه ريزي كاال‬
‫•ساخت‬
‫•بازار يابي (پخش دروني)‬
‫•خدمات داخلي به كاال‬
‫•هزينه دروني كاال‬
‫•سود دلخواه‬
‫•نگهداري كاال‬
‫•بازار شنوي كاال‬
‫پخش بروني‬
‫خدمات عمده فروش‬
‫قيمت عمده فروش ي‬
‫خدمات خرده فروش ي‬
‫‪3. Estimating Costs‬‬
‫قیمت کارخانه ای کاال‬
‫عوارض قانوني‬
‫هزينه حمل كاال‬
‫قيمت مصرفي‬
‫مرحله اول‪ :‬انديشه و بازار‬
‫در نخستين مرحله فرآيند كاال كه انديشه و بازار است سه فعاليت به صورت همزمان انجام‬
‫مي پذيرد‪:‬‬
‫‪ .1‬نوآوري كاال ‪ :‬ارائه طرحهايي براي بوجودآوردن كاالها و خدمات نوين‬
‫‪ .2‬نيازسنجي كاال ‪ :‬شناخت و ارزيابي نيازهاي مصرف كنندگان و خواسته هاي آنها نسبت به‬
‫كاالهاي نوين‬
‫‪ .3‬بازارپذيري كاال ‪ :‬شامل پژوهشهايي در مورد برآورد هزينه كاال‪ ،‬قيمت مصرفي‪ ،‬مقدار تقاضا‪،‬‬
‫و باالخره پيش بيني سود و بازده سرمايه گذاري مي باشد‪.‬‬
‫مرحله دوم ‪ :‬آفرينش كاال )‪(R&D‬‬
‫آفرينش كاال معموال بوسيله مخترعين‪ ،‬نوآوران‪ ،‬و بازارشناسان در آزمايشگاههاي‬
‫مجهز انجام مي پذيرد‪ .‬اين بخش نه تنها موظف به آفرينش كاالها و خدمات نوين‬
‫براي ارائه به بازار است‪ ،‬بلكه مسئوليت بهبود كاال وخدمات فعلي شركت را نيز به‬
‫عهده دارد‪.‬‬
‫مرحله سوم ‪ :‬برنامه ريزي كاال‬
‫در اين مرحله نمونه آزمايش ي كاال )‪ (Prototype‬به يك نمونه آماري از مصرف‬
‫كنندگان بالقوه ارائه گرديده و نظرات آنان درباره خواص و فوايد كاال و نيز ارزش‬
‫ادراكي آنان از كاال گردآوري مي شود‪.‬‬
‫مرحله چهارم‪ :‬ساخت كاال‬
‫در اين مرحله نمونه طراحي شده كاال )‪ (Prototype‬براي ساخت به كارخانه ارسال‬
‫شده و در خط توليد قرار مي گيرد‪ .‬مرحله ساخت (توليد) از ابتداي خط توليد آغاز‬
‫شده و پس از تحويل كاالي ساخته شده به قسمت بسته بندي (كه جز بازاريابي‬
‫است) خاتمه مي يابد‪ .‬سپس كاالي بسته بندي شده تحويل انبار خروجي شركت مي‬
‫گردد‪.‬‬
‫مرحله پنجم‪ :‬بازاريابي كاال‬
‫فعاليتهاي بازاريابي معموال شامل ‪ 9‬بخش زير مي باشد‪:‬‬
‫‪ .1‬نام و نشان كاال‬
‫‪ .2‬بسته بندي كاال‬
‫‪ .3‬تعيين راهروهاي پخش بروني‬
‫‪ .4‬ترابري‬
‫‪ .5‬انبارداري‬
‫‪ .6‬تبليغات بازرگاني‬
‫‪ .7‬سازمان فروش‬
‫‪ .8‬قيمت گذاري‬
‫‪ .9‬تسهيالت فروش‬
‫مرحلة ششم‪ :‬اراية خدمات داخلي به كاال‬
‫براي انجام فعاليتهاي ذكر شده در مراحل پيشين (از انديشه و بازار تا بازاريابي) سركاال‬
‫نيازمند به دريافت خدماتي از بخش هاي مختلف داخل شركت ميباشد‪ .‬از جمله اين خدمات‪،‬‬
‫حسابداري و حسابرس ي حراست سازمان‪ ،‬تأمين منابع مالي براي انجام فعاليتها و نظاير آن‬
‫ميباشد‪ .‬ارايه چنين خدماتي براي ساخت و پخش كاال هزينههايي براي شركت در بر دارد‪ .‬در‬
‫اين مرحله هزينه اين خدمات برآورد شده و به هزينه كاال در ساير مراحل اضافه ميگردد‪.‬‬
‫بنابراين هزينة دروني كاال شامل مبالغي در مراحل ‪:‬‬
‫‪ 1‬ـ انديشه و بازار‬
‫‪2‬ـ آفرينش و بهبود‬
‫‪3‬ـ برنامهريزي كاال‬
‫‪4‬ـ ساخت‬
‫‪ 5‬ـ بازاريابي‬
‫‪ 6‬ـ خدمات داخلي به كاال‬
‫هزينة فعاليتهايي كه در دو مرحلة آخر ف ِرآيند كاال (نگهداري كاال و بازارشنوي كاال) بهعمل خواهد آمد‪ ،‬محاسبه گرديده و به‬
‫هزينة دروني كاال اضافه ميگردد‪.‬‬
‫مراحل دهگانه فرآيند كاال‪:‬‬
‫‪‬‬
‫‪‬‬
‫‪‬‬
‫‪‬‬
‫‪‬‬
‫‪‬‬
‫‪‬‬
‫‪‬‬
‫‪‬‬
‫‪‬‬
‫انديشه و بازار‬
‫آفرينش كاال‬
‫برنامه ريزي كاال‬
‫ساخت كاال‬
‫بازاريابي كاال‬
‫ارائه خدمات داخلي به كاال‬
‫پخش بروني كاال‬
‫خدمات اجتماعي – عوارض قانوني‬
‫خدمات نگهداري به كاال‬
‫بازارشنوي كاال‬
Step 4: Analyzing Competitors’
Costs, Prices, and Offers
 Within the range of possible prices determined by market
demand and company costs, the firm must take into account
its competitors’ costs, prices, and possible price reactions. If
the firm’s offer is similar to a major competitor’s offer, then
the firm will have to price close to the competitor or lose
sales. If the firm’s offer is inferior, it will not be able to
charge more than the competitor charges. If the firm’s offer
is superior, it can charge more than does the competitor—
remembering, however, that competitors might change their
prices in response at any time.
144
5. Pricing Methods
 Covered Price: fixed cost + variable cost
 Desired Return: price = unit cost + (desired return *
invested capital)/ Q
 Perceived value pricing
 Going rate pricing: following the industry leader in pricing
 Sealed-bid
145
Place decisions
M a rke tin g M ix
Produc t
Pric e
Pla c e
L ogis tic s
W h o le sa le rs
R e ta ile rs
Pro m o tio n
Why intermediaries?
 Intermediaries normally achieve superior efficiency in
making goods widely available and accessible to target
markets. Through their contacts, experience, specialization,
and scale of operation, these specialists usually offer the firm
more than it can achieve on its own.
147
Members of the marketing channel
perform a number of key functions:
➤ They gather information about potential and current customers, competitors,
and other actors and forces in the marketing environment.
➤ They develop and disseminate persuasive communications to stimulate
purchasing.
➤ They reach agreement on price and other terms so that transfer of ownership
or possession can be effected.
➤ They place orders with manufacturers.
➤ They acquire the funds to finance inventories at different levels in the marketing
channel.
➤ They assume risks connected with carrying out channel work.
➤ They provide for the successive storage and movement of physical products.
➤ They provide for buyers’ payment of their bills through banks and other
financial institutions.
➤ They oversee actual transfer of ownership from one organization or person to
another.
148
Channels provide 5 service
outputs:
 1. Lot size:The number of units the channel permits a typical customer to




149
purchase on one occasion. In buying cars for its fleet, Hertz prefers a channel
from which it can buy a large lot size; a household wants a channel that permits
buying a lot size of one.
2. Waiting time:The average time customers of that channel wait for
receipt of the goods. Customers normally prefer fast delivery channels.
3. Spatial convenience:The degree to which the marketing channel makes
it easy for customers to purchase the product. Chevrolet, for example, offers
greater spatial convenience than Cadillac, because there are more Chevrolet
dealers.
4. Product variety:The assortment breadth provided by the channel.
Normally, customers prefer a greater assortment, which increases the chance
of finding what they need. Relentless expansion of product variety is the special
edge that has helped Amazon.com maintain its lead in Internet retailing.
5. Service backup:The add-on services (credit, delivery, installation,
repairs) provided by the channel. The greater the service backup, the greater
the work provided by the channel.
Number of Intermediaries
➤ Exclusive distribution means severely limiting the number of intermediaries. Firms such as
automakers use this approach when they want to maintain control over the service level
and service outputs offered by the resellers. Often it involves exclusive dealing
arrangements, in which the resellers agree not to carry competing brands.
➤ Selective distribution involves the use of more than a few but less than all of the intermediaries
who are willing to carry a particular product. In this way, the producer avoids dissipating
its efforts over too many outlets, and it gains adequate market coverage with more
control and less cost than intensive distribution. Nike, for example, sells its athletic shoes
and apparel through seven types of outlets: (1) specialized sports stores, which carry a
special line of athletic shoes; (2) general sporting goods stores, which carry a broad
range of styles; (3) department stores, which carry only the newest styles; (4) massmerchandise stores, which focus on discounted styles; (5) Nike town stores, which
feature the complete line; (6) factory outlet stores, which stock mostly seconds and
closeouts, and (7) the popular Fogdog Sports site (www.fogdog.com), its exclusive Web
retailer.
➤ Intensive distribution consists of the manufacturer placing the goods or services in as many outlets
as possible. This strategy is generally used for items such as tobacco products, soap, snack
foods, and gum, products for which the consumer requires a great deal of location
convenience.
150
Terms and Responsibilities
 From an ethical perspective, each channel member must be treated respectfully and





151
given the opportunity to be profitable.
Other key rights and responsibilities include:
➤ Price policy.The producer establishes a price list and a schedule of discounts and allowances
that intermediaries see as equitable and sufficient.
➤ Conditions of sale.The producer sets payment terms and guarantees for each sale. Most
producers grant cash discounts to distributors for early payment; they may also offer
guarantees against defective merchandise or price declines.
➤ Territorial rights.The producer defines the distributors’ territories and the terms under which
it will enfranchise other distributors. Distributors normally expect to receive full credit
for all sales in their territory, whether or not they did the selling.
➤ Mutual services and responsibilities.The producer must carefully lay out each party’s duties,
especially in franchised and exclusive-agency channels. McDonald’s provides franchisees
with a building, promotional support, a record-keeping system, training, and technical
assistance. In turn, its franchisees are expected to satisfy company standards regarding
physical facilities, cooperate with new promotional programs, and buy supplies from
specified vendors.
Channel Management Decisions
 After a company has chosen a channel alternative, it must
select, train, motivate, and evaluate the individual
intermediaries.
 Then, because neither the marketing environment nor the
product life cycle remains static, the company must be ready
to modify these channel arrangements over time.
152
Selecting Channel Members
 During the selection process, producers should determine what
characteristics distinguish the better intermediaries. They will
want to evaluate number of years in business, other lines carried,
growth and profit record, solvency, cooperativeness, and
reputation.
 If the intermediaries are sales agents, producers will want to
evaluate the number and character of other lines carried and the
size and quality of the sales force.
 If the intermediaries are store or Internet retailers that want
exclusive distribution, the producer will want to evaluate
locations, brand strength, future growth potential, and type of
clientele.
153
Training Channel Members
 Companies need to plan and implement careful training
programs for their distributors and dealers because the
intermediaries will be viewed as the company by end users.
Microsoft, for example, requires third-party service
engineers who work with its software applications to
complete a number of courses and take certification exams.
 Those who pass are formally recognized as Microsoft
Certified Professionals, and they can use this designation to
promote business.
154
Motivating Channel Members
 The most successful firms view their channel members in the
same way they view their end users. This means determining
their intermediaries’ needs and then tailoring the channel
positioning to provide superior value to these intermediaries.
To improve intermediaries’ performance, the company
should provide training, market research, and other
capability-building programs. And the company must
constantly reinforce that its intermediaries are partners in
the joint effort to satisfy customers.
155
Evaluating Channel Members
 Producers must periodically evaluate intermediaries’
performance against such standards as sales-quota
attainment, average inventory levels, customer delivery time,
treatment of damaged and lost goods, and cooperation in
promotional and training programs.
156
Channel Conflict Management:
 ➤ Adoption of superordinate goals. Channel members come to an agreement on the fundamental
goal they are jointly seeking, whether it is survival, market share, high quality, or
customer satisfaction. They usually do this when the channel faces an outside threat, such
as a more efficient competing channel, an adverse piece of legislation, or a shift in
consumer desires.
 ➤ Exchange persons between channel levels. General Motors executives might work for a short
time in some dealerships, and some dealers might work in GM’s dealer policy
department, as a way of helping participants appreciate each other’s viewpoint.
 ➤ Cooptation. Cooptation is an effort by one organization to win the support of the leaders of
another organization by including them in advisory councils, boards of directors, trade
associations, and the like. As long as the initiating organization treats the leaders seriously
and listens to their opinions, cooptation can reduce conflict.
 ➤ Diplomacy, mediation, arbitration for chronic or acute conflict. Diplomacy takes place when
each side sends a person or group to meet with its counterpart to resolve the conflict.
Mediation means having a skilled, neutral third party reconcile the two parties’ interests.
Arbitration occurs when the two parties agree to present their views to an arbitrator and finally
accept the arbitrator’s decision.
157
Promotion Decisons
M a rke tin g M ix
Produc t
Pric e
Pla c e
Prom otion
5 E le m e nts of the
Prom otiona l M ix
‫پيام‬
‫چارچوب‬
‫رسانه‬
‫گيرنده‬
‫فرستنده‬
‫‪159‬‬
‫برداشت گيرنده‪:‬‬
‫پيام‬
‫‪-‬هدف نامشخص پيام‬
‫‪-‬ساختار غيرمنطقي پيام‬
‫تحت كنترل فرستنده‪:‬‬
‫‪-‬چارچوب نا مناسب‬
‫لحن پرخاشگرانه‬‫عدم انطباق ادراكي‬‫‪-‬سوء تفاهم فرهنگي‬
‫عدم درك مخاطب‬‫تفكر مغشوش‬‫‪-‬رسانهء نامناسب‬
‫‪-‬شخصيت منفي‬
‫سخنگوي نامناسب‬‫زمان بندي غلط‬‫ارائه ضعيف‬‫عدم جذابيت‬‫‪-‬مسائل اخالقي‬
‫گيرنده‬
‫فرستنده‬
‫چارچوب‬
‫‪160‬‬
The 5 Elements of the
Promotional Mix
Marketing Mix
Other 3 elements
Promotion
Integrated Marketing Communications
Personal
Selling
161
Sales
Promotion
Public
Relations
Direct
Promotion
Mass
Media
The Marketing Communications
Mix
Advertising
Any Paid Form of Nonpersonal
Presentation by an Identified
Sponsor.
Sales Promotion
Short-term Incentives to
Encourage Trial or Purchase.
Public Relations
Personal Selling
Direct Marketing
162
Protect and/or Promote
Company’s Image/products.
Personal Presentations.
Direct Communications
With Individuals to Obtain
an Immediate Response.
Major Decisions in Advertising
Objectives Setting
Budget Decisions
Message Decisions
Media Decisions
Campaign Evaluation
Advertising Objectives
 Specific Communication Task
 Accomplished with a Specific Target Audience

During a Specific Period of Time
Informative Advertising
Persuasive Advertising
Build Primary Demand
Build Selective Demand
Comparison Advertising
Reminder Advertising
Compares One Brand to
Another
Keeps Consumers Thinking
About a Product.
The Five Ms of Advertising
Message
Mission
Sales
goals
Advertising
objectives
Money
Message generation
Factors to
consider:
Message evaluation
and selection
Stage in PLC
Message execution
Market share
and consumer base
Competition
and clutter
Advertising
frequency
Product
substitutability
Social-responsibility
review
Media
Reach, frequency,
impact
Major media types
Specific media
vehicles
Media timing
Geographical
media allocation
Measurement
Communication
impact
Sales
impact
Advertising Evaluation
Advertising Program Evaluation
Communication Effects
Sales Effects
Is the Ad Communicating Well?
Is the Ad Increasing Sales?
Consumer Promotion
Consumer-Promotion
Objectives
Entice Consumers to
Try a New Product
Lure Customers Away
From Competitors’ Products
Get Consumers to “Load Up’
on a Mature Product
Hold & Reward Loyal
Customers
Consumer Relationship
Building
Consumer-Promotion Tools
Samples
Coupons
Cash Refunds
Advertising
Specialties
Patronage
Patronage
Rewards
Rewards
Contests
Price Packs
Premiums
Sweepstakes
Games
Point-of-Purchase
Displays
Major Public Relations Tools
Web Site
News
Public
Service
Activities
Speeches
Corporate
Identity
Materials
Audiovisual
Materials
Special
Events
Written
Materials
Designing the Sales Force
EQ Slides & Test
Sales force objectives
Sales force strategy
Sales force structure
Sales force size
Sales force compensation
Sales Force Structures
Territorial
Market
Product
Complexity
Workload Approach to Sales Force
Size
 Classify customers by size
 Determine desirable call frequencies
 Determine total sales calls needed per year
 Determine average number of sales calls per sales
representative per year
 Divide total by number per rep
Sales Force Compensation
 Fixed
 Variable
 Expense Allowances
 Benefits
Managing the Sales Force
Recruiting & selecting sales representatives
Training sales representatives
Supervising sales representatives
Motivating sales representatives
Evaluating sales representatives
Improving Sales Force
Effectiveness
Training in sales techniques & professionalism
Negotiation skills
Relationship-building skills
Steps in the Selling Process
Step 1. Prospecting and
Qualifying
Identifying and Screening For
Qualified Potential Customers.
Step 2. Pre-approach
Learning As Much As Possible
About a Prospective Customer
Before Making a Sales Call.
Step 3. Approach
Knowing How to Meet the Buyer
to Get the Relationship Off
to a Good Start.
Step 4. Presentation/
Demonstration
Telling the Product “Story”
to the Buyer, and Showing the
Product Benefits.
Steps in the Selling Process
Step 5. Handling Objections
Step 6. Closing
Step 7. Follow-Up
Seeking Out, Clarifying,
and Overcoming
Customer Objections to
Buying.
Asking the Customer
for the Order.
Following Up After the Sale to
Ensure Customer Satisfaction
and Repeat Business.
Movie
Please take note while watching the movie.
What are the strengths and weaknesses of Mike in his
sales management?
What should have been avoided in the sales meeting?
177
Uses for Databases in Direct Mktg
1. Identify Prospects
2. Match Customers
& Offers
3. Deepen Customer Loyalty
4. Reactivate Customers
Direct Marketing Channels
Face-to-Face
Selling
Online
Marketing
Direct-Mail
Marketing
Kiosk
Marketing
Catalog
Marketing
Direct-Response
TV Marketing
Telemarketing
Communication Tools over the Lifecycle
180
FIGURE 18-4 How the importance of elements
varies during the consumer’s purchase decision
Marketing
Seventh Edition
Kerin, Berkowitz, Hartley & Rudelius
182
183
Positioning Strategy
D efin e th e M arket
S egm en t th e M ark et
C h oose A ttractive S egm en ts
D es ign a M ark etin g m ix
A ppeal to th e T argets
P os ition ou r O fferin g
In th e m in ds of cu stom ers
184
A gain st com petitor's offerin gs
We achieve positioning by
Attributes and Associations
P osition in g
A ttrib u tes
A ssociation s
F eatu res
C h an n el
P erform an ce
A d vertisin g
P rice
M ed ia C h oice
M essag e
E ven ts
P lacem en t
P R : C eleb rities
185
Example of Value Propositions Demand
States and Mktg Tasks
186
Co &
Product
Target
Customers
Benefits
Price
Value Proposition
Perdue
(Chicken)
Qualityconscious
consumers of
chicken
Tenderness
10%
Premium
More tender golden chicken at
a moderate premium price
Volvo
(Station
Wagon)
Safetyconscious
“upscale”
families
Durability and
Safety
20%
Premium
The safest, most durable
wagon in which your family can
ride
Domino’s
(Pizza)
Convenienceminded pizza
lovers
Delivery speed
and good
quality
15%
A good, hot pizza delivered to
your door within 30 minutes of
ordering, at a moderate price
What do competitors do against companies
that have strong positions?
 Strengthen current position in customer’s mind (Avis:
We’re # 2.We try Harder or 7-Up’s “the Uncola”)
 Grab unoccupied position (3 Musketeer’s position as
having 45% less fat than other chocolate bars)
 De- or Reposition (Wendy’s famous commercial in
which a 70-year-old woman named Clara looked at a
competitor’s burger and said: “Where’s the beef?”)
187
The Marketing Plan
Executive Summary & Table of Contents
Current Marketing Situation
Opportunity & Issue Analysis
Objectives
Marketing Strategy
Action Programs
Projected Profit-and-loss
188
Controls
FIGURE 22-2 The strategic marketing process: . . .
189
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