Elements of Music Harmony Two or more notes together Chord – three or more notes at one time Triad – A three note chord Form Binary – AB form; music has two sections Form – The way music is arranged Call and Response – Soloist sings, then congregation repeats or echoes what the soloist sang. (Originated in Africa) ABA – Ternary form; music has three sections – the “A” section is played twice Rhythm The way music is arranged in time or organized into beats Time signature – (Also known as meter) 2/4, ¾ , 4/4 4/4 – The top number tells you how many beats are in each measure. The bottom number tells you what kind of note gets the beat. Rhythm Continued Duration – How long a note is held or played Whole note = 4 beats Half note = 2 beats Quarter note = 1 beat Eighth note = ½ beat Sixteenth note = ¼ beat Dot – Adds half of the note’s original value Melody One note at a time The tune of a song Sharp (#) – Raises a pitch one half step Flat (b) – Lowers a pitch one half step Phrase – A musical sentence Grand Staff – The bass and treble clef on the two separate staffs, but are connected. Usually used with piano music. Tempo How fast or slow the music is Allegro- A fast tempo Moderato – A medium tempo Largo – A slow tempo Dynamics How loud or soft the music is. Pianissimo (pp) – very soft Piano (p) – soft Mezzo piano (mp) – medium soft Mezzo forte (mf) – medium loud Forte (f) – Loud Fortissimo (ff) – Very loud Dynamics Continued Crescendo – gradually get louder Decrescendo – gradually get softer Timbre How different instruments and voices sound different from each other. Woodwind Family Clarinet Piccolo Flute Oboe Bassoon Saxophone Brass Family Trumpet Tuba French Horn Baritone Trombone String Family Violin Viola Cello Bass (Piano, harp) Percussion Snare drum Xylophone Cymbals Triangle Bass drum Marimba Piano Voice Soprano – Highest female voice Alto – Lowest female voice Tenor – Highest male voice Bass – Lowest male voice Open Response Question List two elements that you think are the most important – What does list mean? Open Response, Part B Explain why these two elements are important. Give at least two examples of each – What does explain mean? – How many examples is it asking for? Open Response, Part C Compare and Contrast these two elements. What would music be like if these two elements did not exist? – What does compare and contrast mean? – Describe what music would be like if these elements did not exist.