Chapter 14

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C.W. Shelmerdine
Introduction to Greek
2nd edition
(Newburyport, MA: Focus, 2008)
Chapter 14
Shelmerdine Chapter 14
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
3rd declension nouns: stems in –ι, –υ
Principal parts of labial stem verbs
νομίζω and φημί
Indirect statement
The infinitive in indirect statement
Shelmerdine Chapter 14
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
3rd declension nouns: stems in –ι, –υ
Principal parts of labial stem verbs
νομίζω and φημί
Indirect statement
The infinitive in indirect statement
Shelmerdine Chapter 14
1. 3rd declension nouns: stems in –ι, –υ
•
•
The last major group of 3rd declension nouns has
stems ending in -ι or -υ.
The -ι or -υ appears in only three forms: the
nominative, accusative, and vocative singulars.
–
•
The accusative singular uses the ending –ν (instead of -α).
When the stem of a 3rd declension noun ends in
-ι or -υ, in most forms the -ι or -υ becomes an -ε.
–
In the nominative, accusative and vocative plural, the
resulting -εες contracts to -εις. (-εα  -η for neuters).
Shelmerdine Chapter 14
1. 3rd declension nouns: stems in –ι, –υ
When the stem of a 3rd declension noun ends in -ι or -υ,
in most forms the -ι or -υ becomes an -ε.
–
In the nominative, accusative and vocative plural, the
resulting -εες contracts to -εις. (-εα  -η for neuters).
The genitive singular ends in –ως (rather than -ος).
–
Both the singular and plural of the genitive accent the
antepenult, despite the long ultima.
Shelmerdine Chapter 14
1. 3rd declension nouns: stems in –ι, –υ
Thus the forms of πόλις, πόλεως ἡ “city”
singular
Nom. πόλις
Gen. πόλεως
Dat. πόλει
Acc. πόλιν
Voc. πόλι
plural
Nom. πόλεις
Gen. πόλεων
Dat. πόλεσι
Acc. = nom.
Voc. = nom.
Shelmerdine Chapter 14
1. 3rd declension nouns: stems in –ι, –υ
A very few nouns with stems in -υ follow an
analogous pattern.
Thus the forms of πρέσβυς, πρέσβεως ὁ “elder”
singular
Nom. πρέσβυς
Gen. πρέσβεως
Dat. πρέσβει
Acc. πρέσβυν
Voc. πρέσβυ
plural
Nom. πρέσβεις
Gen. πρέσβεων
Dat. πρέσβεσι
Acc. = nom.
Voc. = nom.
Shelmerdine Chapter 14
1. 3rd declension nouns: stems in –ι, –υ
A very few nouns with stems in –υ follow an
analogous pattern.
Thus the forms of ἄστυ, ἄστεως τό “town”
singular
Nom. ἄστυ
Gen. ἄστεως
Dat. ἄστει
Acc. = nom.
Voc. = nom.
plural
Nom. ἄστη
Gen. ἄστεων
Dat. ἄστεσι
Acc. = nom.
Voc. = nom.
Shelmerdine Chapter 14
1. 3rd declension nouns: stems in –ι, –υ
A very few nouns with stems in -υ retain the full stem.
Thus the forms of ἰχθύς, ἰχθύος ὁ “fish”
singular
Nom. ἰχθύς
Gen. ἰχθύος
Dat. ἰχθύι
Acc. ἰχθύν
Voc. ἰχθύ
plural
Nom. ἰχθύες
Gen. ἰχθύων
Dat. ἰχθύσι
Acc. ἰχθῦς (later ἰχθύας)
Voc. = nom.
Shelmerdine Chapter 14
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
3rd declension nouns: stems in –ι, –υ
Principal parts of labial stem verbs
νομίζω and φημί
Indirect statement
The infinitive in indirect statement
Shelmerdine Chapter 14
2. Principal parts of labial stem verbs
•
•
Page 82 gives the first four principal parts for all
the labial (π, β, φ) stem verbs so far in your
vocabulary.
Recall that a labial (π, β, φ) followed by a σ
becomes ψ, so the future (2nd principal part) and
aorist (3rd principal part) will normally display ψ.
Shelmerdine Chapter 14
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
3rd declension nouns: stems in –ι, –υ
Principal parts of labial stem verbs
νομίζω and φημί
Indirect statement
The infinitive in indirect statement
Shelmerdine Chapter 14
3. νομίζω and φημί
•
•
•
•
The verb φημί means “say.”
Like εἰμί, it is a common verb of the –μι
conjugation.
The future φήσω and aorist ἔφησα are
completely regular.
οὐ + φημί means “deny” or “say <something>
is not”
–
οὐ λέγω means “not say”
Shelmerdine Chapter 14
•
•
•
•
•
•
*φημί
φῄς
*φησί(ν)
*φαμέν
*φατέ
*φασί(ν)
Present Tense
* = enclitic forms
•
•
•
•
•
•
ἔφην
ἔφησθα/ἔφης
ἔφη
ἔφαμεν
ἔφατε
ἔφασαν
Imperfect Tense
infinitive φάναι
Shelmerdine Chapter 14
3. νομίζω and φημί
•
•
In Moodle is a pdf entitled “Verbs of Saying in
Ancient Greek” which lays out the various verbs
of saying and speaking in different tenses.
These verbs (+ νομίζω) often set up indirect
statement (see next section).
Shelmerdine Chapter 14
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
3rd declension nouns: stems in –ι, –υ
Principal parts of labial stem verbs
νομίζω and φημί
Indirect statement
The infinitive in indirect statement
Shelmerdine Chapter 14
4. Indirect statement
•
A direct statement declares an action.
–
•
A direct quote gives someone’s exact words.
–
•
They are coming.
I say, “They are coming.”
An indirect statement reports someone’s words.
–
I say (that) they are coming.
Shelmerdine Chapter 14
2. Indirect statement
–
–
–
•
•
I say, “They are coming.”
I say (that) they are coming.
I said (that) they were coming.
Notice that English sometimes shifts the tense of
a verb in indirect statement.
Greek sometimes shifts mood, but rarely tense,
in indirect statement.
Shelmerdine Chapter 14
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
3rd declension nouns: stems in –ι, –υ
Principal parts of labial stem verbs
νομίζω and φημί
Indirect statement
The infinitive in indirect statement
Shelmerdine Chapter 14
5. The infinitive in indirect statement
• Verbs which mean “say,” (e.g., φημί)
“think” or “believe” (e.g., νομίζω)
generally set up indirect statements with
verbs in the infinitive.
Shelmerdine Chapter 14
5. The infinitive in indirect statement
•
•
The tense of the infinitive remains what it was in
the original statement.
οἱ στρατιῶται τάχιστα ἦλθον.
–
•
The soldiers came very quickly.
νομίζουσιν οἱ στρατιῶται τάχιστα ἐλθεῖν.
–
The soldiers believe they came very quickly.
Shelmerdine Chapter 14
5. The infinitive in indirect statement
•
•
The infinitive in one sense is the direct object of
the verb.
νομίζουσιν οἱ στρατιῶται τὴν τιμήν.
–
•
The soldiers believe in honor.
νομίζουσιν οἱ στρατιῶται τάχιστα ἐλθεῖν.
–
The soldiers believe they came very quickly.
Shelmerdine Chapter 14
5. The infinitive in indirect statement
• Consequently, if the infinitive in the indirect
statement has a distinct subject, it appears in the
accusative.
•
νομίζουσιν οἱ στρατιῶται τάχιστα ἐλθεῖν.
–
•
The soldiers believe they (the soldiers) came very
quickly.
οἱ στρατιῶται νομίζουσι τοὺς πολεμίους
τάχιστα ἐλθεῖν.
–
The soldiers believe the enemy came very quickly.
Shelmerdine Chapter 14
5. The infinitive in indirect statement
• Remember that English sometimes backshifts the
tense in indirect statement, but Greek does not.
•
νομίζουσιν οἱ στρατιῶται τάχιστα ἔρχεσθαι.
–
•
The soldiers believe they come very quickly.
ἐνόμισαν οἱ στρατιῶται τάχιστα ἔρχεσθαι.
–
The soldiers believed they came very quickly.
Shelmerdine Chapter 14
Xenophon of Athens
Ξενοφῶν ὁ Ἀθηναῖος
(c.430-c.355 BC)
Shelmerdine Chapter 14
Ξενοφῶντος
Κύρου Ἀνάβασις
Sol Yurick The Warriors
novel (1965)
Walter Hill
The Warriors (1979)
Shelmerdine Chapter 14
μετὰ δὲ τὸν πόλεμον ὁ Ξενοφῶν ἤγαγε τοὺς Ἕλληνας διὰ
τῆς Ἀρμενίας. ἧκον δ' εἰς χώραν καλήν, ἧς ὁ ἄρχων τοῖς
Ἕλλησιν ἡγεμόνα ἔπεμψεν. καὶ ὁ ἡγεμὼν ἔφη πέντε
ἡμερῶν ἄξειν τὸ στρατιὰν πρὸς ὅρος ὅθεν ἡ θάλαττα
ἔσεσθαι φανερά. εἰ δὲ μή, ἐθέλειν ἔφη ἀποθανεῖν. οὐ
μέντοι διὰ τὴν πρὸς τοὺς Ἕλληνας εὐνοίαν ἕνεκα ἦγεν
αὐτοὺς· ἡ γὰρ ὁδὸς ἡ τῆς στρατιᾶς ἦν διὰ χώρας ἣ
πολεμία ἦν τῷ ἄρχοντι.
Shelmerdine Chapter 14
μετὰ δὲ τὸν πόλεμον ὁ Ξενοφῶν ἤγαγε τοὺς Ἕλληνας
διὰ τῆς Ἀρμενίας.
ἧκον δ' εἰς χώραν καλήν,
ἧς ὁ ἄρχων τοῖς Ἕλλησιν ἡγεμόνα ἔπεμψεν.
καὶ ὁ ἡγεμὼν ἔφη πέντε ἡμερῶν
ἄξειν τὸ στρατιὰν πρὸς ὅρος
ὅθεν ἡ θάλαττα ἔσεσθαι φανερά.
εἰ δὲ μή, ἐθέλειν ἔφη ἀποθανεῖν.
οὐ μέντοι διὰ τὴν πρὸς τοὺς Ἕλληνας εὐνοίαν ἦγεν αὐτοὺς·
ἡ γὰρ ὁδὸς ἡ τῆς στρατιᾶς ἦν διὰ χώρας
ἣ πολεμία ἦν τῷ ἄρχοντι.
Shelmerdine Chapter 14
μετὰ δὲ τὸν πόλεμον ὁ Ξενοφῶν ἤγαγε τοὺς Ἕλληνας
διὰ τῆς Ἀρμενίας.
ἧκον δ' εἰς χώραν καλήν,
ἧς ὁ ἄρχων τοῖς Ἕλλησιν ἡγεμόνα ἔπεμψεν.
καὶ ὁ ἡγεμὼν ἔφη πέντε ἡμερῶν
ἄξειν τὸ στρατιὰν πρὸς ὅρος
ὅθεν ἡ θάλαττα ἔσεσθαι φανερά.
εἰ δὲ μή, ἐθέλειν ἔφη ἀποθανεῖν.
οὐ μέντοι διὰ τὴν πρὸς τοὺς Ἕλληνας εὐνοίαν ἦγεν αὐτοὺς·
ἡ γὰρ ὁδὸς ἡ τῆς στρατιᾶς ἦν διὰ χώρας
ἣ πολεμία ἦν τῷ ἄρχοντι.
The March of the Ten Thousand
Ἕλλας
Ἀρμενία
ἡ θάλαττα
Shelmerdine Chapter 14
ἔπεισεν οὖν τοὺς Ἕλληνας αἴθειν καὶ φθείρειν τὴν
χώραν. ὁ δὲ ἡγεμὼν τέλος ἤγαγεν αὐτοὺς εἰς τὸ ὄρος
ὀνόματι ἦν Θήχης. τότε ἔσπευδον οἱ στρατιῶται, ἐπεὶ δὲ
οἱ πρῶτοι ἦσαν ἐπὶ τοῦ ὄρους, ὁ Ξενοφῶν ἤκουσαν
κραυγὴν. ἀναβαίνει δ' οὖν ἐφ' ἵππον καὶ ἀκούει τὴν βοήν,
Θάλαττα θάλαττα.
Shelmerdine Chapter 14
ἔπεισεν οὖν τοὺς Ἕλληνας
αἴθειν καὶ φθείρειν τὴν χώραν.
ὁ δὲ ἡγεμὼν τέλος ἤγαγεν αὐτοὺς
εἰς τὸ ὄρος ὀνόματι ἦν Θήχης.
τότε ἔσπευδον οἱ στρατιῶται,
ἐπεὶ δὲ οἱ πρῶτοι ἦσαν ἐπὶ τοῦ ὄρους,
ὁ Ξενοφῶν ἤκουσαν κραυγὴν.
ἀναβαίνει δ' οὖν ἐφ' ἵππον
καὶ ἀκούει τὴν βοήν,
Θάλαττα θάλαττα.
Shelmerdine Chapter 14
ἔπεισεν οὖν τοὺς Ἕλληνας
αἴθειν καὶ φθείρειν τὴν χώραν.
ὁ δὲ ἡγεμὼν τέλος ἤγαγεν αὐτοὺς
εἰς τὸ ὄρος ὀνόματι ἦν Θήχης.
τότε ἔσπευδον οἱ στρατιῶται,
ἐπεὶ δὲ οἱ πρῶτοι ἦσαν ἐπὶ τοῦ ὄρους,
ὁ Ξενοφῶν ἤκουσαν κραυγὴν.
ἀναβαίνει δ' οὖν ἐφ' ἵππον
καὶ ἀκούει τὴν βοήν,
Θάλαττα θάλαττα.
Shelmerdine Chapter 14
ἐπεὶ δὲ οἱ στρατιῶται ἧκον ἐπὶ τὸ ἄκρον, περιέβαλλον
ἀλλήλους καὶ στρατηγοὺς καὶ λοχαγούς, καὶ ἐδάκρυον.
καὶ οἱ στρατιῶται ἔφερον λίθους καὶ κολωνὸν
παρεσκεύαζον. τῷ δὲ ἡγεμόνι παρέσχον δῶρα, ἵππον καὶ
φιάλην ἀργύρου καὶ σκευὴν Περσικὴν καὶ δαρεικοὺς
δέκα, καὶ αὐτὸν ἀπέπεμψαν.
Shelmerdine Chapter 14
ἐπεὶ δὲ οἱ στρατιῶται ἧκον ἐπὶ τὸ ἄκρον,
περιέβαλλον ἀλλήλους καὶ στρατηγοὺς καὶ λοχαγούς,
καὶ ἐδάκρυον.
καὶ οἱ στρατιῶται ἔφερον λίθους
καὶ κολωνὸν παρεσκεύαζον.
τῷ δὲ ἡγεμόνι παρέσχον δῶρα,
ἵππον
καὶ φιάλην ἀργύρου
καὶ σκευὴν Περσικὴν
καὶ δαρεικοὺς δέκα,
καὶ αὐτὸν ἀπέπεμψαν.
Shelmerdine Chapter 14
ἐπεὶ δὲ οἱ στρατιῶται ἧκον ἐπὶ τὸ ἄκρον,
περιέβαλλον ἀλλήλους καὶ στρατηγοὺς καὶ λοχαγούς,
καὶ ἐδάκρυον.
καὶ οἱ στρατιῶται ἔφερον λίθους
καὶ κολωνὸν παρεσκεύαζον.
τῷ δὲ ἡγεμόνι παρέσχον δῶρα,
ἵππον
καὶ φιάλην ἀργύρου
καὶ σκευὴν Περσικὴν
καὶ δαρεικοὺς δέκα,
καὶ αὐτὸν ἀπέπεμψαν.
a cairn (κολωνός)
φιάλη
δαρεικός
σκευὴ Περσική
Shelmerdine Chapter 14
Ἰησοῦς Χριστὸς Θεοῦ υἱὸς σωτήρ.
σωτήρ, σωτῆρος ὁ savior
υἱός –οῦ ὁ son
Shelmerdine Chapter 14
οἱ δὲ ἄλλοι μαθηταὶ τῷ πλοιαρίῳ ἦλθον, οὐ γὰρ ἦσαν
μακρὰν ἀπὸ τῆς γῆς ἀλλὰ ὡς ἀπὸ πηχῶν διακοσίων,
σύροντες τὸ δίκτυον τῶν ἰχθύων. ὡς οὖν ἀπέβασαν εἰς
τὴν γῆν, βλέπουσιν ἀνθρακιὰν κειμένην καὶ ὀψάριον
ἐπικείμενον καὶ ἄρτον.
ἄλλος –η –ον other
ἀνθρακιά -ᾶς ἡ charcoal
ἀπέβασαν "they got out (of the boats)"
ἄρτος –ου ὁ bread
βλέπω see
γῆ γῆς ἡ earth
διακόσιος –αι –α two hundred
δίκτυον –ου τό net
ἐπικείμενον lying next to
ἦλθον "they came" (aorist of ἔρχομαι)
κειμενήν "lying there"
μαθητής –οῦ ὁ disciple
μακράν far
ὀψάριον –ου τό fish
πῆχυς –εως ὁ cubit (= 18 inches)
πλοιάριον –ου τό boat
σύροντες dragging
ὡς about, when
Shelmerdine Chapter 14
λέγει αὐτοῖς ὁ Ἰησοῦς, Ἐνέγκατε ἀπὸ τῶν ὀψαρίων ὧν
ἐπιάσατε νῦν. ἀνέβη οὖν Σίμων Πέτρος καὶ εἵλκυσεν τὸ
δίκτυον εἰς τὴν γῆν μεστὸν ἰχθύων μεγάλων ἑκατὸν
πεντήκοντα τριῶν.
ἀνέβη “(he) walked up”
γῆ γῆς ἡ earth
δίκτυον –ου τό net
ἑκατόν hundred
ἕλκω, ἑλκύσω, εἵλκυσα drag
ἐνέγκατε = ἐνέγκετε (< φέρω)
μέγας, μεγάλη, μέγαν big
μεστός -ή -όν full
ὀψάριον –ου τό fish
πεντήκοντα fifty
πιάζω catch
τρεῖς τρία three
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