Shelmerdine Chapter 30

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C.W. Shelmerdine
Introduction to Greek
2nd edition
(Newburyport, MA: Focus, 2008)
Chapter 30
Shelmerdine Chapter 30
1.
2.
3.
4.
The indefinite relative pronoun/adjective
Correlative pronouns/adjectives
Correlative adverbs
Conditional relative and temporal clauses
Shelmerdine Chapter 30
1.
2.
3.
4.
The indefinite relative pronoun/adjective
Correlative pronouns/adjectives
Correlative adverbs
Conditional relative and temporal clauses
Shelmerdine Chapter 30
1. The indefinite relative pronoun/adjective
•
•
ὅστις is simply the relative pronoun ὅς ἥ ὅ
followed by the indefinite pronoun τις τι, written
together as one word.
As the combination implies, it means “anyone
who/anything which” or “whoever/whatever.”
Shelmerdine Chapter 30
1. The indefinite relative pronoun/adjective
Masc
Fem
Neuter
ὅστις οἵτινες
οὗτινος ὧντινων
ᾧτινι οἷστισι(ν)
ὅντινα οὕστινας
ἥστις αἵτινες
ἧστινος ὧντινων
ᾗτινι
αἷστισι(ν)
ἥντινα ἅστινας
ὅ τι
οὗτινος
ᾧτινι
ὅ τί
ἅτινα
ὧντινων
οἷστισι(ν)
ἅτινα
Shelmerdine Chapter 30
1. The indefinite relative pronoun/adjective
•
•
ὅστις has two common functions.
(1) generalizing relative pronoun/adjective
–
στρατηγὸς εὐδαίμων ὅστις νικᾷ.
•
–
Any general who wins is happy.
ἔστιν ὅστις οὔποτε ἁμαρτάνει;
•
Is there anyone who never makes a mistake?
Shelmerdine Chapter 30
1. The indefinite relative pronoun/adjective
•
•
ὅστις has two common functions.
(2) interrogative in indirect questions
–
τίς νικᾷ;
•
–
Who is winning?
ἐρωτῶ ὅστις νικᾷ.
•
I ask who is winning.
Shelmerdine Chapter 30
1. The indefinite relative pronoun/adjective
•
•
The neuter accusative singular of ὅστις written ὅ τι
means “anything which.”
This form is used often and, by means of the
accusative of respect (“somehow with respect to
which”), comes to mean “because,” “that,” etc. In
this meaning, it is conventionally written as one
word, ὅτι.
Shelmerdine Chapter 30
1.
2.
3.
4.
The indefinite relative pronoun/adjective
Correlative pronouns/adjectives
Correlative adverbs
Conditional relative and temporal clauses
Shelmerdine Chapter 30
Interrogative Indefinite
(enclitic)
Demonstrative Relative
Indef Rel
/Indir Interrog
τίς
who?
τις someone
οὗτος
this
ὅς
who
ὅστις
whoever
πόσος
how much?
ποσός
some amount
τοσοῦτος
this much
ὅσος
as much as
ὁπόσος
however much
ποῖος
what kind?
ποιός
some kind
τοιοῦτος
this kind
οἷος
ὁποῖος
the kind which whatever kind
Shelmerdine Chapter 30
1.
2.
3.
4.
The indefinite relative pronoun/adjective
Correlative pronouns/adjectives
Correlative adverbs
Conditional relative and temporal clauses
Shelmerdine Chapter 30
Interrogative Indefinite
(enclitic)
ποῦ
where?
Demonstrative
που
ἐνταῦθα
somewhere here, there
πόθεν
ποθέν
ἐντεῦθεν
from where? somewhere from there
Relative
Indef Rel
(Indir Interrog)
οὗ
where
ὅπου
where(ever)
ὅθεν
ὁπόθεν
from where from where(ever)
ποῖ
to where?
ποι to
ἐνταῦθα
οἷ
somewhere to here, to there to where
ὅποι
to where(ever)
πότε
when?
ποτέ
ever
τότε
then
ὅτε
when
ὁπότε
when(ever)
πῶς
how?
πως
somehow
οὕτως
this way, thus
ὡς
as, how
ὅπως
how(ever)
Shelmerdine Chapter 30
1.
2.
3.
4.
The indefinite relative pronoun/adjective
Correlative pronouns/adjectives
Correlative adverbs
Conditional relative and temporal clauses
Shelmerdine Chapter 30
4. Conditional relative and temporal clauses
•
An indefinite relative pronoun or adverb can set up
a general clause equivalent to a protasis with a
subjunctive (accompanied by ἄν).
–
ἐὰν δῶρα πέμπωσιν, τὴν εἰρήνην διώκομεν.
•
–
“In general, if they send gifts, we pursue peace.”
ὁπόταν δῶρα πέμπωσιν, τὴν εἰρήνην διώκομεν.
•
•
“Whenever they send gifts, we pursue peace.”
ὁπόταν = ὁπότε + ἄν
Shelmerdine Chapter 30
4. Conditional relative and temporal clauses
•
With secondary tenses, an indefinite relative
pronoun or adverb can set up a general clause
equivalent to a protasis with an optative.
–
εἰ δῶρα πέμψειαν, τὴν εἰρήνην ἐδιώκομεν.
•
–
ὁπότε δῶρα πέμψειαν, τὴν εἰρήνην ἐδιώκομεν.
•
–
“In general, if they sent gifts, we pursued peace.”
“Whenever they sent gifts, we pursued peace.”
οἵτινες δῶρα πέμψειαν τὴν εἰρήνην ἐδέχοντο.
•
“Whoever sent gifts received peace.”
Shelmerdine Chapter 30
for next class (Monday, April 11, 2011):
• Quiz: Vocabulary Chapter 30
– from section 3 omit: πόθεν/ποθέν, ποῖ/ποι,
οἷ, ὁπόθεν, ὅποι
• Prepare Biblical Reading 30
Shelmerdine Chapter 30
τούτων δὲ παρόντων, βλέψας πρὸς τὸν Κῦρον ὁ
Ἀστυάγης ἔφη· Σὺ δὴ ὢν παῖς τοιούτου ἀνδρὸς ἐτόλμησας
τὸν τοῦδε παῖδα ὄντος πρώτου παρ' ἐμοὶ ὧδε ὑβρίζειν; ὁ
δὲ ἀπεκρίνατο· Ὦ δέσποτα, ἐγὼ ταῦτα δικαίως ἐποίησα.
οἱ γὰρ ἐκ τῆς κώμης παῖδες, ὧν καὶ ὅδε ἦν, παίζοντες ἐμὲ
ἑαυτῶν ἐστήσαντο ἑαυτῶν βασιλέα.
Shelmerdine Chapter 30
τούτων δὲ παρόντων,
βλέψας πρὸς τὸν Κῦρον ὁ Ἀστυάγης ἔφη·
Σὺ δὴ ὢν παῖς τοιούτου ἀνδρὸς
ἐτόλμησας τὸν τοῦδε παῖδα ὄντος πρώτου παρ' ἐμοὶ
ὧδε ὑβρίζειν;
ὁ δὲ ἀπεκρίνατο·
Ὦ δέσποτα, ἐγὼ ταῦτα δικαίως ἐποίησα.
οἱ γὰρ ἐκ τῆς κώμης παῖδες, ὧν καὶ ὅδε ἦν, παίζοντες
ἐμὲ ἑαυτῶν ἐστήσαντο ἑαυτῶν βασιλέα.
Shelmerdine Chapter 30
ἐδόκουν γὰρ αὐτοῖς εἶναι ἐπιτηδειότατος. οἱ μὲν οὖν
ἄλλοι παῖδες ἃ ἐκέλευσα ἔπραξαν, οὗτος δὲ οὐκ ἐπείθετο,
ἐκολάσθη οὖν. εἰ οὖν δὴ τούτου ἕνεκα ἄξιος κακοῦ τινός
εἰμι, ὅδε πάρειμι. ταῦτα λέγοντος τοῦ παιδός, ὁ Ἀστυάγης
ἐδόκει ἀναγνωρίζειν τὸ πρόσωπον αὐτοῦ καὶ πολὺν
χρόνον ἄφθογγος ἦν.
Shelmerdine Chapter 30
ἐδόκουν γὰρ αὐτοῖς εἶναι ἐπιτηδειότατος.
οἱ μὲν οὖν ἄλλοι παῖδες ἃ ἐκέλευσα ἔπραξαν,
οὗτος δὲ οὐκ ἐπείθετο,
ἐκολάσθη οὖν.
εἰ οὖν δὴ τούτου ἕνεκα ἄξιος κακοῦ τινός εἰμι,
ὅδε πάρειμι.
ταῦτα λέγοντος τοῦ παιδός,
ὁ Ἀστυάγης ἐδόκει ἀναγνωρίζειν τὸ πρόσωπον αὐτοῦ
καὶ πολὺν χρόνον ἄφθογγος ἦν.
Shelmerdine Chapter 30
τοῦ δὲ Ἀρτεμβάρους ἀποπεμφθέντος, ἐκέλευσε τοὺς
θεράποντας ἔσω ἄγειν τὸν Κῦρον. ἐπεὶ δὲ παρῆν ὁ
βουκόλος μόνος, ὁ Ἀστυάγης τάδε ἠρώτησεν· Πόθεν
ἔλαβες τὸν παῖδα καὶ τίς σοι ἔδωκεν αὐτόν; ὁ δὲ
ἀπεκρίνατο ὅτι ἐστὶν ὁ ἐαυτοῦ παῖς. ὁ δὲ Ἀστυάγης
ἐσήμαινε τοῖς δορυφόφοις συλλαμβάνειν καὶ τύπτειν
αὐτόν. ὁ δὲ μεγίστῃ ἀπορίᾳ ὤν, πάντα ἐξηγεῖτο καὶ ᾔτησε
τὸν βασιλέα ἑαυτῷ συγγιγνώσκειν.
Shelmerdine Chapter 30
τοῦ δὲ Ἀρτεμβάρους ἀποπεμφθέντος,
ἐκέλευσε τοὺς θεράποντας ἔσω ἄγειν τὸν Κῦρον.
ἐπεὶ δὲ παρῆν ὁ βουκόλος μόνος,
ὁ Ἀστυάγης τάδε ἠρώτησεν·
Πόθεν ἔλαβες τὸν παῖδα
καὶ τίς σοι ἔδωκεν αὐτόν;
ὁ δὲ ἀπεκρίνατο ὅτι ἐστὶν ὁ ἐαυτοῦ παῖς.
ὁ δὲ Ἀστυάγης ἐσήμαινε τοῖς δορυφόφοις
συλλαμβάνειν καὶ τύπτειν αὐτόν.
ὁ δὲ μεγίστῃ ἀπορίᾳ ὤν,
πάντα ἐξηγεῖτο
καὶ ᾔτησε τὸν βασιλέα ἑαυτῷ συγγιγνώσκειν.
Shelmerdine Chapter 30
5 καὶ λαλήσουσιν οἱ γραμματεῖς πρὸς τὸν λαὸν λέγοντες
Τίς ὁ ἄνθρωπος ὁ οἰκοδομήσας οἰκίαν καινὴν καὶ οὐκ
ἐνεκαίνισεν αὐτήν; πορευέσθω καὶ ἀποστραφήτω εἰς τὴν
οἰκίαν αὐτοῦ, μὴ ἀποθάνῃ ἐν τῷ πολέμῳ καὶ ἄνθρωπος
ἕτερος ἐγκαινιεῖ αὐτήν.
ἀποστραφήτω
< ἀποστρέφω turn away
γραμματεύς –έως ὁ secretary, scribe
ἐγκαινίζω renew, dedicate
ἕτερος –α –ον other
καινός –ή –όν new
λαλέω = λέγω
λαός –οῦ ὁ the people
οἰκία –ας ἡ household
οἰκοδομέω build a house
Shelmerdine Chapter 30
6 καὶ τίς ὁ ἄνθρωπος, ὅστις ἐφύτευσεν ἀμπελῶνα καὶ οὐκ
εὐφράνθη ἐξ αὐτοῦ; πορευέσθω καὶ ἀποστραφήτω εἰς τὴν
οἰκίαν αὐτοῦ, μὴ ἀποθάνῃ ἐν τῷ πολέμῳ καὶ ἄνθρωπος
ἕτερος εὐφρανθήσεται ἐξ αὐτοῦ. 7 καὶ τίς ὁ ἄνθρωπος,
ὅστις μεμνήστευται γυναῖκα καὶ οὐκ ἔλαβεν αὐτήν;
πορευέσθω καὶ ἀποστραφήτω εἰς τὴν οἰκίαν αὐτοῦ, μὴ
ἀποθάνῃ ἐν τῷ πολέμῳ καὶ ἄνθρωπος ἕτερος λήμψεται
αὐτήν.
ἀποστραφήτω
< ἀποστρέφω turn away
ἀμπελών –ος ὁ vineyard
ἕτερος –α –ον other
εὐφραίνω delight in, be happy
μνηστεύω betroth
οἰκία –ας ἡ household
φυτεύω grow
Shelmerdine Chapter 30
8 καὶ προσθήσουσιν οἱ γραμματεῖς λαλῆσαι πρὸς τὸν
λαὸν καὶ ἐροῦσιν Τίς ὁ ἄνθρωπος ὁ φοβούμενος καὶ
δειλὸς τῇ καρδίᾳ; πορευέσθω καὶ ἀποστραφήτω εἰς τὴν
οἰκίαν αὐτοῦ, ἵνα μὴ δειλιάνῃ τὴν καρδίαν τοῦ ἀδελφοῦ
αὐτοῦ ὥσπερ ἡ αὐτοῦ.
ἀδελφός -οῦ ὁ brother
ἀποστραφήτω
< ἀποστρέφω turn away
γραμματεύς –έως ὁ secretary, scribe
δειλιαίνω make cowardly
δειλός –η –ον cowardly
ἐρέω used as future of λέγω
καινός –ή –όν new
καρδία –ας ἡ heart
λαλέω = λέγω
λαός –οῦ ὁ the people
οἰκία –ας ἡ household
προστίθημι here ”go further to”
φοβέω frighten
Shelmerdine Chapter 30
Exam 4 (Tuesday, April 12, 2011):
• For ἵστημι (principal parts given), write out all
forms of the 1st/2nd/3rd person, sing/pl,
present/imperfect/aorist indicative/infinitive active
(see pages 154 and 156). Since ἵστημι has both a
weak and a strong aorist, blanks will be provided to
write both.
Shelmerdine Chapter 30
Exam 4 (Tuesday, April 12, 2011):
• Given a noun, write out the full declension of the
noun with its definite article and the aorist passive
participle of ἵστημι (σταθείς; see page 148 for the
pattern). The translation will indicate whether to
place it in the attributive or predicate position.
• Translate a brief passage into clear, idiomatic
English.
• Parse selected words from this passage.
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