Eye injuries - Safety Awakenings

Eye Injuries
Anatomy of the Eye:
Parts of the Eye:
 Conjunctiva:
Thin membrane covering the eye
 Sclera:
The whites of the eye
 Cornea:
The fixed focus lens
 Aqueous Lens:
The fluid that fills a small chamber
behind the cornea
 The Iris:
The coloured part of the eye
 The Pupil:
The hole inside the iris ring
Parts of the Eye:
 The Vitreous Humour:
Thick jelly like fluid that fills the
eyeball and keeps it firm
 Retina:
The curved back layer of the eye
covered in light sensitive cells ( roots
& cones) that can see shapes,
colours & patterns
 Optic Nerve:
Sends info from the retina to the
Casualty Sheet:
 Mechanism of injury – How did it happen, safety glasses,
time frame, welding?
 Were they wearing contacts?
 Was it a projectile object?
 Was force involved?
 Was the pt working with metal or in an environment where
there may be metal debris?
Eye Injuries:
o Flying Particles
o Foreign Bodies
o Welding flashes
o Chemicals
o Sharp tools or objects
o Blunt tools or objects
Foreign Body:
 Depending on what it is and how the injury happened, a FB
may pierce the eye and cause serious injury or may simply
go away with nil long term problems.
Symptoms Include:
Sharp pain in your eye – followed by burning, irritation tearing and redness
Feeling that something is moving around the eye when it is closed
Scratching sensation over your eye when blinking
Blurred vision or loss of vision in the affected eye
Bleeding into the white part of the eye OR the coloured area – this indicates a
significant injury.
o Can’t stand the light
Foreign Body Eye:
Examine the eye:
 Ask the pt where they feel the
irritation or scratching is?
 Irrigate with normal saline
 Invert the upper eyelid with
cotton bud - How?
 If visible with the naked eye –
can remove with wet cotton
bud-gently swipe.
Foreign Body:
o Rubbing may scratch or push the FB in further (Corneal
o Eye wash in some cases may be enough
o FB will often hide behind the upper eyelid
o Will scratch if not removed
Foreign Body:
Rust Ring to Eye:
o URGENT : Vision can be effected
o Note with metal rings can occur if not removed
 Eye wash
 Look at the pupil – are they equal
 Always ask pt if improvement post eye wash
 Always ask the pt to return 2 hours post wash - either to
you or Medical centre
 A FB Especially metal can cause blindness if not treated
(rust rings start within 3 hours)
 Corneal Abrasions have good outcome (Heal in 48hrs) if
treated early with AB eye ointment
 Despite irrigating the eye. There may be FB that cannot be seen with
the naked eye and needs to be examined closer – contact the OHN
 OHN -If needed during working Hours an Ophthalmologist App can
be organised.
Chemical Burns:
 Wash immediately with copious amounts of water
 Get MSDS
 Treatment essential OHN
 Usually treated 2-3L N/Saline.
 Sent off for further treatment
 Lead to infection, scarring, loss of sight
Penetrating Eye Injuries:
o Sharp or blunt injuries
o Medical Emergency
o Potentially cause blindness
o Preventable
o Infection Eye
o General Health Issue
o Watery
o Redness
o Itchy
o Irritation
Lime Burns:
Flash Burns:
o Welding without safety shield or standing close to someone
o Usually occurs 6-12 hours after event
o Inflammation of the cornea (the clear tissue that covers the
front of the eye)
o Like sunburn in the eye
o Usually heals in 1 – 2 days without leaving a scar
o If not treated can lead to infection
o Pain mild or severe
o Bloodshot eyes
o Light sensitivity
o Watery eyes
o Blurred vision
o The feeling of having something in your eye
 Examination of the eye – stain eye
 Phenylepherine drops ( FB must be excluded prior to use)
 May require panadiene forte
 Antibiotics
 Review by ophthalmologist
If you have any questions,
please ask your supervisor