The End of the Cold War & the Persian Gulf War 1988-1992 Richard B. Cheney: Secretary of Defense, 1989-93 George H. W. Bush: President, 1989-1993 Colin L. Powell: Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff, 198993 The end of Soviet Communism 1989: Communist regimes fall in Eastern European states. Berlin Wall opened in 1989, removed by 1990. 1990: Communist Party dissolved in Soviet Union. 1991: Soviet Union dissolves, replaced by Commonwealth of Independent States Fall of the Wall Boris Yeltsin, Russian President, 1991-1999 Change facilitates (& complicates) arms control Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe (CFE Treaty), signed 1990. Limited offensive conventional arms held by Eastern and Western states in Europe. START Treaty, signed 1991. Reduced total numbers of delivery vehicles and warheads in U.S. and Soviet arsenals. Fall of U.S.S.R. undercuts Communist efforts elsewhere Nicaragua: peace negotiated between Sandinistas and contras in 1987. Sandinistas voted out of power in 1990. El Salvador: Peace negotiated between government and Marxist groups in 1990. Cuba: pulls troops out of interventions in Africa (Angola, Ethiopia, Namibia) Panama Manuel Noriega: general and de facto ruler of Panama, 1983-89. Had ties to U.S. intelligence, Fidel Castro, and Latin American drug interests. 1989: various incidents provoke confrontation with U.S. Operation JUST CAUSE U.S. invasion of Panama: Dec. 20-28, 1989. After fleeing to Vatican embassy, Noriega surrenders, flown to U.S. to face drug charges. More trouble in the Persian Gulf August 2, 1990: Iraq invades Kuwait. Kuwait “annexed” Saddam Hussein, Aug. 8. Aug. 5: Bush declares will wage war to restore Kuwaiti independence if necessary. Larger dangers Unchallenged Iraqi occupation of Kuwait threatened: Saudi Arabia other regional Arab regimes Israel Iraq also possessed chemical and biological weapons. Operation DESERT SHIELD Goal: Protect Saudi Arabia Begins August 7, 1990. Thousands of troops transported by air Millions of tons of equipment and fuel transported by sea. Diplomacy Bush Administration builds a coalition of 24 nations to confront Iraq: 23 countries provide naval forces; 22 ground troops; 12 provide air units Other counties also help pay the bills: U.S. costs about $60-70 billion – foreign contributions covered $50 billion (not counting services in kind). The problem of Israel The coalition included many Arab states. Israeli participation would have complicated the position of allied Arab governments, leading to their withdrawal from the war. Bush Administration successfully keeps Israel out of the conflict. The Role of the United Nations Bush Administration uses the UN as a forum to build and maintain the coalition against Iraq. Gets UN to impose various sanctions upon Iraq between August and November 1990. UN Security Council authorized use of force against Iraq if it did not withdraw from Kuwait by January 15, 1991. Increasing the commitment October 1990: Bush wanted a plan to kick Iraq out of Kuwait. Military planners fail to come up with convincing plans given projected force levels. November 1990: Bush increases number of U.S. troops to facilitate offensive operations. The Powell Doctrine U.S. military action: should be used only as a last resort. only for a clear national security risk. force, when used, should be overwhelming and disproportionate to the force used by the enemy. there must be strong support for the campaign by the general public. there must be a clear exit strategy. U.S. manpower 237,800 Reservists & National Guardsmen (& women) were called to active duty during the Gulf War. 40,000 in August 187,000 between November 1990 and January 1991 10,000 volunteered for active duty H. Norman Schwarzkopf, Jr. Commander, U.S. Central Command and of coalition forces in the Gulf. The plan to attack Iraq Month-long air campaign Preliminary goal of destroying Iraqi air defenses. Other targets included military and industrial facilities, first in Iraq, then Kuwait If needed, ground offensive would follow air operations. The ground plan Operation DESERT STORM January 15, 1991: Ordered by President George H. W. Bush January 17: air operations began February 24: ground campaign launched February 28: ceasefire and coalition victory. High-tech air war Smart bombs, precision-guided munitions. Advanced air control & target acquisition systems. New planes Scud Attacks Iraq launches missiles at Israel, Saudi Arabia, and Bahrain. Coalition responds with “Great Scud Hunt,” sending planes and special operations units to locate and destroy these weapons. “The 100-hour War” Coalition ground forces blast through Iraqi defenses. Highly effective artillery and air support. Iraqi forces not as numerous or tough as anticipated. Failure: Republican Guard divisions escape. “The Highway of Death” Fears of public reaction to large numbers of Iraqi casualties helps push for quick conclusion to hostilities. Assessment Casualties: US – 613: 146 killed, 467 wounded. Coalition – 410: 92 killed, 318 wounded. Iraqi – 12,000 killed, about 86,000 surrendered. Kuwaiti independence restored. Iraqi strategic military capability devastated. Problems for the future Saddam Hussein remains in power in Iraq.