Process of communication

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Business Communication Objectives
 Communication is the way management gets its job
done
 Good managers are usually good communicators
 Executives in the present day business world are not
only highly skilled but also more articulate than any
other professional
 Business communication will explain management
communication concepts and dimension
Objective
Assist in improving communication skills
-Receptive skills(listening and reading)
-Expressive skills(speaking and writing)
 Methodology
-Role play
-Cases & Lectures
-Individual exercises
-Group exercises
 Evaluation of Performance
 Group exercises & presentation /cases/tests -40%
 Class attendance
-10%
 Exam
-50%
Class Contribution
 The distinguishing feature of truly great managers of human resources
is the willingness and ability to be an advocate for an organization’s
people and for human resource practices that benefit both the people
and the organization.
 During your career, you will encounter many individuals who think
that organizations can obtain sustainable, long-term success through
the latest technology, financial wizardry, or marketing techniques and
that how people are managed has little impact on organizational
performance.
 You will need to be able to convince others that investing in sound
human resource management practices makes economic sense. This
will not be an easy task; it will require technical knowledge combined
with excellent communication, persuasion, and negotiation skills..
Class Contribution
 Our class is a laboratory where you can practice convincing your peers
of the value of your ideas. Your participation in class discussions will
count for 10% of your final grade.
 Clearly, you must participate in class if you are going to share your ideas
with others. However, there is no need to speak in every class session.
Some of the best contributors participate less often than the most
active speakers.
 Though less vocal, their thoughts are truly insightful and persuasive.
Thus, the issue is one primarily of quality, not quantity.
Contd
 After every class session, I will assess your contribution to the class. In
assessing your class participation, I will address the following questions:
 Is this person an excellent listener?
 Does this person make points that are relevant to this discussion and, where
appropriate, linked to the comments of others?
 Does this person distinguish among different types of data – facts from a case)
or do this person’s comments add value and new insight?
 Does this person distinguish among different types of data – facts, opinions,
personal beliefs or value statements, theoretical concepts, etc?
 Is this person willing to test new ideas or are all comments “safe” (e.g., minor
elaborations on the comments of others)?
 Is this person able to bring together several ideas and summarize what we have
learned in the discussion so far?
 Does this person raise great questions that expand the scope of our
discussions?
Contd
 Outstanding participant. In-class contributions reflect excellent
preparation and thorough knowledge of relevant readings and cases.
Ideas offered are always substantive and provide one or more major
insights as well as direction for the class. Arguments are wellsupported, persuasively presented, and reveal that this person is an
excellent listener. Comments help others move their thinking to a
higher plane. If this person were not a member of our class, the quality
of our discussions would be greatly diminished.
Contd
 Good participant. In-class contributions reflect thorough
preparation. Ideas offered are usually substantive and provide good
insights and sometimes direction for the class. Arguments are usually
well-supported and often persuasive and reveal that this person is a
good listener. Comments usually help others improve their thinking.
If this person were not a member of the class, the quality of our
discussions would be diminished.
Contd
 Adequate participant. Contributions reflect satisfactory preparation.
Ideas offered sometimes provide useful insights but seldom offer a
major new direction for discussion. Supporting arguments are
moderately persuasive. Comments occasionally enhance the learning
of others and indicate that this person is usually, but not always,
listening to others if this person were not a member of the class, the
quality of our discussions would be diminished somewhat.
Contd
 Unsatisfactory participant. Contributions reflect inadequate
preparation. Lack of know ledge of fundamental case facts and/or key
ideas from the readings. Ideas offered are seldom important, often
irrelevant, and do not provide insights or constructive direction for the
class. Integrative comments and higher order thinking are absent.
This person does very little to further the thinking and potential
contributions of others. If this person were not a member of the class,
the quality of our discussion would be improved.

 Non-participant. This person has said little or nothing in class and so
has not contributed anything. This person is a free-rider because he or
she has benefited from the thinking and courage of peers but has
offered little in return. If this person were not a member of the class,
the quality of our discussion would be unchanged.
Contd
 You will receive maximum (10%) if your contributions are good or
outstanding on most days.
 You will receive 8% if your contributions are adequate or good on most
days.
 You will receive 6% if your contributions are adequate on most days but
rarely going beyond that.
 If your participation is consistently below adequate levels you will
receive between 0 and 5%.
Meaning
The word communication originates from the Latin word
“communis”, which means “common”
The word business stands for any economic activity which is
undertaken with a view to earn profit and the communication
undertaken in the process of this activity is termed as "business
communication.
Communication - Meaning
 Communication is a dynamic process…
 Through this process we convey a thought or feeling to
someone else.
 How communication is received depends on a set of events,
stimuli, that person is exposed to.
 How you say what you say plays an important role in
communication.
Communication is a Series of Experiences of
Hearing
Smell
Seeing
Touch
Taste
TOTAL COMMUNICATION PROCESS
Writing
9%
Speaking
30%
Reading
16%
Listening
45%
NATURE OF COMMUNICATION
i.
It is a process
ii. It is inevitable
iii. Meaning based
iv. Communication could be intentional and unintentional
v. Communication is systematic
vi. A two–way traffic
vii. Communication is a social process
viii. A dynamic process
ix. Continuous process
x. Communication involves interaction and transaction
Cont….
xi.
It is spiraling process
xii.
It is contextual
xiii.
Needs proper understanding
xiv.
Leads achievement of the organizational objective
xv.
Dispels misunderstanding
xvi.
It has four specific skills
xvii. It is all pervasive
xviii. It shares thoughts and ideas, which produce response
xix.
It is the life blood of the business:
CLASSIFICATION OF COMMUNICATION(TYPES OF
COMMUNICATION)
Communication is classified according to the number of persons
(receivers) to whom the message is addressed:
 Intrapersonal communication
 Interpersonal Communication
 Group communication
 Mass communication
Communication can also be classified on the basis of the medium
employed(Forms of communication)
 Verbal Communication
 Non-verbal communication
 Meta communication
PROCESS OF COMMUNICATION
The process of communication involves two or more persons
participating through a medium that carries the information or
message for a particular purpose which is mutually understood
by both the sender and receiver. Only when these conditions are
fulfilled, a significant communicative situation will take shape
Elements of the Communication Process
For the communication process to materialize, it is essential that
the basic elements of communication be identified. These
elements are:
1. Sender/Encoder/Speaker
2. Receiver/Decoder/Listener
3. Message
4. Medium(Channel)
5. Feedback
6.
Context or setting
7.
Noise or interference
Process of Communication
 Different scholars have viewed the communication process
differently and have therefore developed different models.
 There is no disparity as far as the essential components –
functions –nature are concerned. Communication is an
interactive process
 The process of communication is dynamic and interactive
 Interaction can be direct or indirect
 As communication occurs the sender and receiver interact by
sending (encoding) and receiving (decoding)messages
The Process of Communication
Feedback
travels to
sender
NOISE
Sender
Sender
has
encodes
idea
message
Channel carries message
Possible additional
feedback to
receiver
Receiver
Receiver
decodes
“understands”
message
message
NOISE
The Process of Communication
How may the sender encode a
message?
Verbally or nonverbally. By speaking,
writing, gesturing.
What kinds of channels carry
messages?
Letters, e-mail, memos, blog,
Blackberry, TV, telephone, voice,
body. Others?
Hearing, reading, observing.
How does a receiver decode a
message?
When is communication successful?
When a message is understood as the
sender intended it to be.
How can a communicator provide for
feedback?
Ask questions, watch responses,
don’t dominate the exchange.
The communication process
 Communication begins with the sender
SENDER
Self –concept
Family
Culture
Skills
Feelings
Attitudes
Values
RECEIVER
CHANNEL
Television,telephone,
speaking,writing,
computer
MESSAGE
Interference
FEEDBACK
CONTEXT
Environment, status,time
Self –concept
Family
Culture
Skills
Feelings
Attitudes
Values
The communication process
 Communication begins with the sender
 Senders are individuals who react to situations from a unique



•
vantage point
interpreting ideas and filtering experiences through their own
perception, based on the background of accumulated
attitudes,
experiences,
skills, cultural conditioning and individual differences that
influences how they communicate.
Sender encodes an idea or feeling in words or signs that the
receiver will recognise and transmit this message to the
receiver.
Process of Communication
 MESSAGE
-The message connects the sender to the receiver
 The message is the idea or feeling transmitted from the sender
to the receiver to achieve understanding
 It makes a connection between sender and receiver
The communication Process
 THE RECEIVER
 The receiver decodes or interprets the message to achieve
understanding
 In doing this the receiver is also acting as an individual from a unique
vantage point
-Interpreting the idea according to a particular personal perception of
the message
 This perception is the result of the receiver’s unique background of
experiences, beliefs, concerns and many other factors
The communication Process
 PERCEPTION
 Since perception has a significant influence on communication, it is
useful to look closely at it
 The way a message is perceived by the sender may be quite different
from the way the receiver perceives the message
 Perception is the way people understand or give meaning to their
environment
 Perception and interpretation of the same message vary between
people(why?)
The communication Process
• Why perception vary?
• This is because individual perception is influenced by
 experience
 attitudes and beliefs
 and a range of acquired skills or expectations
 For example- one person may conceive colour blue as
cool,peaceful,comforting while another person perceives it as old
fashioned and formal
 Context /setting of the communication also affects perception(calming
& relaxing/intimidating in its formality on another)
 Specific meaning is also influenced by past experience
The communication process
 Perception is often compared with a pair of spectacles, through which
we process all the signals received from others
 The glasses place a focus on what we see, hear and understand and
influence the way we react to the message
 The particular colour and focus of a message are affected by the pair of
glasses worn
 The glasses may distort the picture
The communication process
 FEEDBACK
 Feedback is an essential part of successful interpersonal
communication
 It is the receivers response to the sender’s message
 Feedback can be intentional or unintentional
 Feedback:
 Provides continuity in the communication
 Indicates effective understanding or misunderstanding of the message
 Stimulates further communication and discussion
The communication process
 FEEDBACK
 Both sender and receiver need feedback
 As you communicate, check with your receivers to establish that their
understanding of the message is correct
 Ask the receiver to rephrase what has been said and acknowledge your
agreement or disagreement
 It is important to the speaker to determine how the message is being
received and helps receivers understand how their behaviour affects
others
The communication process
 Feedback can help or hinder your communication and the climate you
create
 In the work place most people communicate face- to- face with their
leaders, supervisors and colleagues
-the ability to provide appropriate feedback can assist the development
of effective working relationships
- development of productivity of the business
The communication process
COMMUNICATION CHANNEL
• The channel is the vehicle of the message
• A communication channel is the means or technique used to signal or
convey a message
• For example-a conversation, letter, telephone call, radio or television
program
• Choose a channel that suits your communication purpose ,your needs
as the sender of the message and the needs of the receiver
• The flow of communication moves through the organisation along
different lines or channels of communication(horizontal/vertical)
The communication process
• CONTEXT
• Context affects the message
• Context is the situation or setting within which communication takes
place
• The circumstances that surround a particular piece of communication
• Context plays an important part in how a message is encoded and
decoded
• The same message can have a completely different meaning
depending on the situations
• Why? Since emotions and reactions to ideas and events vary in
different situation
The communication process
Context
• Same message can have a completely different meaning
-For example, communication at a conference ,in the lunch room ,at a
formal meeting or in the office is taking place in different settings
-It may use different language, relationships and authority to achieve
the different communication purpose in each situation
The communication process
Noise
 Noise is any disturbance that obscures reduces or confuses the clarity
or quality of the message being transmitted
 It is any interference that takes place between the sender and the
receiver. This is why we generally identify any communication problem
that can’t be fully explained as “noise”
 To overcome the noise barrier one should identify the source it may be
(1) Physical noise(2)Physiological noise (3) Psychological noise
The communication process
 Physical noise :- External factors that distract communication fall
under this category
-Everyday examples of physical noise /a loud motorbike roaring down
the road while you are trying to hold a conversation
-Your little brother standing in front of the TV set
-mist on the inside of the car/smudges on a printed page
-We are fairly good at avoiding this physical noise
HOW?
Shout
Clout
The communication process
 Physiological Noise:- Hearing disorders fall into this category-illness
and disabilities that make it difficult to send or receive messages
 Example- It is hard to pay attention when one is recovering from late
night study session or has the flu
 Psychological noise:-It consists of forces within sender or receiver that
interfere with the understanding
-Egotism, defensiveness, hostility,preoccupation,fear,
different perception(will be discussing in detail under Barriers of
communication)
-Once source identified(steps taken to improve communication flow)
The communication process
• NOISE
• The message received is not necessarily the same as the message sent
-Something other than the intended message is received because
noise, or interference ,interrupts the intended message
-Example send a message by electronic mail to person who is afraid of
technology and unable to access the computer screen
-what happens?
-communication barriers will appear because of poor choice of
channel/write a memo or business letter message is easily understood
and accepted
The communication process
• NOISE
• Noise or interference that interrupts the message or communication
flow between sender and receiver can lead to misunderstanding
-or too confused or ambiguous communication
• Communication barriers occur as a result of a misunderstanding or
misinterpretation of the message
-These barriers can be caused by sender, receiver, lack of feedback, a
poor choice of channel
-the wrong context or any other element in the communication model
-Even when communication barriers appear something is
communicated
-the noise /interference distorts the intended message
The communication Process
 The individual
Perception
Feelings
Culture
Family
Communication skills
Attitudes & values
expectations
experience
Self
concept
Working of the Process of Communication
One Way Process
ONE WAY COMMUNICATION PROCESS
SENDER
DECODING
ENCODING
RECEIVER
MESSAGE
CHANNEL
Message
Two Way Process
Encoding
Channel
Decoding
Receiver
Idea
Sender
Encoding of
Response
Decoding of
Feedback
Feedback
Perceived Meaning &
Internal Response
The communication process
model
An individual has an idea to
communicate
SENDER
The idea is encoded
SENDER
Perception
 Self-concept
 Family
 Culture
 Skills
 Feelings
 Attitudes
 Values
Individuals encode ideas according to their own unique
perceptions
The encoded idea is sent in a
message
SENDER
Self-concept
Family
Culture
Skills
Feelings
Attitudes
Values
MESSAGE
RECEIVER
Self-concept
Family
Culture
Skills
Feelings
Attitudes
Values
To a receiver who decodes it according to different
individual perceptionsceptions
The receiver responds with
feedback
SENDER
Self-concept
Family
Culture
Skills
Feelings
Attitudes
Values
MESSAGE
RECEIVER
Self-concept
Family
Culture
Skills
Feelings
Attitudes
Values
FEEDBACK
Feedback helps to ensure that the message
received has been decoded correctly
Channel - the means of conveying
the message
CHANNEL
SENDER
Self-concept
Family
Culture
Skills
Feelings
Attitudes
Values
MESSAGE
FEEDBACK
RECEIVER
Self-concept
Family
Culture
Skills
Feelings
Attitudes
Values
CONTEXT
Context - the situation, environment or
circumstances of the communication
Interference
CHANNEL
SENDER
Self-concept
Family
Culture
Skills
Feelings
Attitudes
Values
MESSAGE
INTERFERENCE
FEEDBACK
RECEIVER
Self-concept
Family
Culture
Skills
Feelings
Attitudes
Values
CONTEXT
Interference changes or distorts the message
The communication process
is continuous…
CHANNEL
SENDER
Self-concept
Family
Culture
Skills
Feelings
Attitudes
Values
MESSAGE
MESSAGE
MESSAGE
INTERFERENCE
FEEDBACK
FEEDBACK
FEEDBACK
CONTEXT
RECEIVER
Self-concept
Family
Culture
Skills
Feelings
Attitudes
Values
OBJECTIVES/PURPOSE OF COMMUNICATION
The objectives of business communication would include the following:

To inform

To persuade

To educate

To train

To motivate

To integrate

To relate

To entertain
SCOPE OF COMMUNICATION
Communication has unlimited scope which can be understood under two broad
headings:
1.
External dimension
2.
Internal dimension
In addition to external and internal dimensions, the scope of communication can
be further expanded to include:
 Oral and non-verbal communication.
 Interpersonal, intrapersonal and mass communication.
 Human communication.
 Reading, writing, speaking and listening.
FUNCTIONS OF COMMUNICATION

Information sharing

Feedback

Influence

Problem solving

Assists in decision making

Facilitating change

Group building

Gate keeping

Conveying the right message

Helps in co-ordination of effort
Cont…

Good industrial relations

Development of managerial skills

Ensuring effectiveness of policies

Motivating people Performance feedback

Job instruction

Controlling people

Spreading rumours

Emotive function
EVALUATION OF COMMUNICATION EFFECTIVENESS
Communication effectiveness can be examined in relation to the following
criteria:
i.
Fidelity of communication
ii.
Economy
iii. Congruence
iv. Influence
v.
Relationship building
COMMUNICATION
 7% WORDS
 Words are only labels and the listeners put their own
interpretation on speakers words
 38% PARALINGUISTIC
 The way in which something is said - the accent, tone and
voice modulation is important to the listener.
 55% BODY LANGUAGE
 What a speaker looks like while delivering a message
affects the listener’s understanding most.
TYPES OF BODY LANGUAGE
Remember that you are dealing with “PEOPLE”
 (P)OSTURES & GESTURES
 How do you use hand gestures? Stance?
 (E)YE CONTACT
 How’s your “Lighthouse”?
 (O)RIENTATION
 How do you position yourself?
 (P)RESENTATION
 How do you deliver your message?
 (L)OOKS
 Are your looks, appearance, dress important?
 (E)PRESSIONS OF EMOTION
 Are you using facial expressions to express emotion?
ORGANIZATIONAL COMMUNICATION
The communication system serves as the vehicle by which an organization is
embedded in its environment. It keeps the members of the organization
informed about the internal and external happenings which are relevant and of
interest to the organization.
Information to be Communicated in an Organization
Broadly, all business communications can be divided into five types of
informations:

Statutory information

Regular work-situation

Major policy or operational change information

Information bulletin

Communication by expectancy
Cont….
Importance of Communication in Management
Management as a discipline includes every conceivable form of
communications.
Some Important Functions of Managing

Forecasting

Planning

Organizing

Instructing

Co-ordinating

Controlling
Cont….
Communication Needs in Different Jobs





Job Title
Secretary
Finance Associate/Finance
Product Manager
Sales Representative

Personnel Manager

Production Manager

Contracts Administrator












Communication Skills
Proficient and writing skills.
Ability to communicate clearly to client and others.
Develop and communicate product strategies.
Excellent oral communication, follow up skills and ability to
draft
proposals.
General knowledge of proposal preparation: good oral/
written
communication skills.
Ability to write and read, listening to grievances, ability to
conduct
interviews.
Ability to communicate precisely to employees working
under his
supervision.
Business Communication
Today’s
Communication
Challenges
Ch. 1-61
Trends in the New Workplace
 Flattened management hierarchies
 More participatory management
 Increased emphasis on self-directed work and teams
 Heightened global competition
 Innovative communication technologies
 New work environments
 Move to knowledge economy
Ch. 1-62
ACTIVITY
• Try not to communicate for two hours in your home/hostel
-see what kind of messages your people/friends get from you
• Watch a discussion program on TV and observe it with respect to the
different elements of communication process
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