Models of Communication - COKY

Kuliah 1 Proses Komunikasi
Oleh Coky Fauzi Alfi
Konsep Dasar Komunikasi
• Defining Communication
• Models of Communication
• The Value of Understanding Communication
Defining Communication
In the most fundamental way,
communication depends on our
ability to understand one another.
Communication is a social
process in which individuals
employ symbols to establish
and interpret meaning in
their environment.
Five Key Terms in Communication
1. When interpreting communication as
social, it involves two people, who act
as senders and receivers.
2. Communication is a process means
that it is ongoing and unending. The
process nature of communication also
means that much can happen from the
beginning of a conversation to the end.
3. Communication is symbols. A symbol is
an arbitrary label or representation of
• Concrete symbols is the symbol
represents an object
• Abstract symbols is the symbol
stands for a thought or idea
4. Meaning is what people extract from a
message. In communication episodes,
messages can have more than one
meaning and even multiple layers of
5. Environment is the situation or context
in which communication occurs. The
environment includes a number of
elements, including time, place,
historical period, relationship, and a
speaker’s and listener’s cultural
Models of Communication
1. The linear model of
2. The interactional model of
3. The transactional model of
Communication as Action: The Linear Model
Claude Shannon and Warren Weaver (1949)
described communication as a linear process.
They were concerned with radio and telephone
technology and wanted to develop a model that
could explain how information passed through
various channels.
Examples: a letter, email, text message, lecture.
Bell's drawing of
the workings of a
telephone, from
his original
Communication as Interaction: The Interactional Model
Wilbur Schramm (1954) conceptualized the
interactional model of communication, which
emphasizes the two-way communication
process between communicators.
In other words, communication goes in two
directions: from sender to receiver and from
receiver to sender.
Examples: instant messaging or a
question/answer session
Communication as Transaction: The Transactional Model
Dean Barnlund (1970) :
The transactional model of communication underscores
the simultaneous sending and receiving of messages in
a communication episode.
Communication is transactional means that the process
is cooperative; the sender and the receiver are
mutually responsible for the effect and the
effectiveness of communication.
Examples: talking/listening to friends
The Value of Understanding
Communication Theory
• Understanding communication theory
cultivates critical thinking skills
• Understanding communication theory helps
you to recognize the breadth and depth of
• Understanding communication theory helps
to make sense of personal life experiences
• Communication theory fosters selfawareness
© 2011
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