Liver

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Wang Jinde
王金德
instructor :
prof .李明
Department of anatomy
人体解剖学教研室
Natural condition is hard.
Humane enviroment is good.
Students give me some inspiration.
Keep away from alcohol
.swf
Liver
肝
Question:
Where is the liver?
What does it look like?
What is the function of the liver?
new
words
liver
肝
diaphragmatic surface 膈面
falciform ligament
镰状韧带
left lobe of liver
肝左叶
right lobe of liver
肝右叶
bare area
裸区
visceral surface
脏面
porta hepatis
肝门
ligamentum teres hepatis 肝圆韧带
new
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words
ligamentum venosum
fossa for gallbladder
sulcus for vena cava
secondary porta of liver
quadrate lobe
caudate lobe
gallbladder
fundus of gallbladder
body of gallbladder
neck of gallbladder
静脉韧带
胆囊窝
腔静脉沟
第2肝门
方叶
尾状叶
胆囊
胆囊底
胆囊体
胆囊颈
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words
cystic duct
胆囊管
spiral fold
螺旋襞
common hepatic duct
肝总管
common bile duct
胆总管
hepatopancreatic ampulla
肝胰壶腹
sphicter of hepatopancreatic ampulla
肝胰壶腹扩约肌
目的要求
• 一、熟悉肝的功能。
• 二、掌握肝的形态、位置。
• 三、掌握肝外胆道系统。
The liver is the
largest internal organ
of the body, weighs
about 1.3 kg in an
adult.
It is wedge-shaped,
covered by onnective
tissue (Glisson,s
capsule). Its reddish
brown color is due to
its great vascularity.
功能
1、蛋白质、脂类、糖类及维生素等的合成、转化分解
to synthesize ,translate,and breakdown protein,
lipid ,carbohydrate,vitamin,and so on.
2、激素、药物 的转化、解毒
detoxification of chemicals
3、抗体的生成
production of antibody
4、造血
hematopoiesis
5、胆汁的生成
Making bile to help
digestion
肝的形态
两面:上面(膈面) 、下面(脏面)
四缘:前、后、左、右缘
Diaphragmatic surface膈
面
bare area
falciform lig.
Coronary lig.
Convex and smooth
裸区
镰状韧带
冠状韧带
Coronary lig.
falciform lig.
Visceral surface
肝肾隐窝(hepatorenal recess)
Visceral surface
has a H-shaped fissures and grooves
-Left limb of H
– Anteriorly: fissure
for ligamentum
teres
肝圆韧带裂
– Posteriorly: fissure
for ligamentum
venosum
静脉韧带裂
Right limb of H
– Anteriorly: fossa for
gallbladder
胆囊窝
– Posteriorly: sulcus
for vena cava
下腔静脉沟
Cross-bar of H is the porta hepatis 肝门:
traversed by
•proper hepatic artery
Connective
•hepatic portal vein
tissue called hepatic pedicle
•Nerves
肝蒂
• right and left hepatic ducts
•lymphatic vessels
Four lobes:
• left
•right
•quadrate
•caudate
Left lobe
caudate
lobe
Right
lobe
Quadrate
lobe
Inferior border –thin and
sharp
• Notch for ligamentum
teres hepatis 肝圆韧带切
迹
• Nothch for gallbladder
胆囊切迹
Parenchymatous Organ
Capsule
Lobule
Hilum or porta
Porta Hepatis肝门:
肝固有动脉左右支
肝左右管
门静脉左右支
神经
淋巴出入的门户。
位置:
Most of liver lies in
the right
hypochondriac region
and epigastric region,
less part extending
into the left
hypochondriac region
Surface projection(体表投影)
• Upper border:
on the right
midclavicular line
it extends the level
of 5th rib
Lower border:
Normally, the right lobe
extends just beneath the
costal margin, it doesn’t
extend beyond the costal
margin;
• In children, compared with
the adult , the liver being
larger in proportion ,it
extends below the costal
arch within in 2cm.
• on the anterior median line
its lower border crosses
3~5cm below the xiphoid
process.
Liver Transplant
• The removal of a diseased liver and replacement
with a healthy liver from a donor who has died. In
some cases, a portion of the liver of a living,
related donor may be used.
肝外胆道
Consists of
• Gallbladder 胆囊
• Left and right hepatic
ducts 肝左、右管
• Common hepatic duct
肝总管
• Common bile duct
胆总管
Obstruction of biliary system
results jaundice in clinical condition.
Gallbladder 胆囊
Position :lies in fossa for
gallbladder on visceral
surface of liver
Gallbladder 胆囊
Four parts
• Fundus of gallbladder
胆囊底
• Body of gallbladder
胆囊体
• Neck of gallbladder
胆囊颈
• Cystic duct
胆囊管
Function: stores and
concentrate bile
Fundus of
gallbladder
(胆囊底)
Surface
projection:
at the junction
of right
midclavicular
line and right
costal arch
Divisions and relations of common bile duct
• Supraduodenal segment
• Retroduodenalsegment
• Pancreatic segment
• Intraduodenal segment
胰头癌时,
为何会发生黄疸?
Intraduodenal
segment
Enters the wall of
descending part of
duodenum obliquely
where jions the
pancreatic duct to
form the
hepatopancreatic
ampulla
opens at the major
duodenal papilla
胆汁排出途径
• 未进食
胆汁
肝胰壶腹括约肌收缩
肝总管
胆囊管
肝左、右管
胆囊储存、浓缩
进食进食后胆汁排出.swf
肝胰壶腹括约肌舒张,胆囊收缩,
胆汁
肝胰壶腹
胆囊
胆囊管
胆总管
十二指肠
单纯胆囊管结石,
会不会引起黄疸?
Triangle of Calot
• Boundaries: the common hepatic duct on the left, the
cystic duct on the right, the liver, superiorily
• Content: cystic artery
Cystic a:
多于胆囊三角内起自肝右动脉,变异较多,手术时应予注意:
胆囊三角(Calot三角)
胆囊管、肝总管和肝的脏面围成的三角形区域,是胆囊手术中寻找胆囊动脉的标
志。
summary
1. describe porta hepatis , the lobes and the
location of liver
2. describe the formation of the biliary ducts
outside the liver
3. describe the subsection, the location, the
function of the gallbladder in the living
4. describe the surface projection of the
fundus of the gallbladder
5. describe the drainage way of bile
1. porta hepatis 肝门:
Cross-bar of H
traversed by
•proper hepatic artery
•hepatic portal vein
•Nerves
•hepatic ducts
•lymphatic vessels
Connective
tissue
hepatic pedicle
肝蒂
hepatic portal vein
proper hepatic artery
hepatic ducts
Four lobes:
• left
•right
•quadrate
•caudate
Left lobe
caudate
lobe
Right
lobe
Quadrate
lobe
Position:
Most of liver lies in
the right
hypochondriac region
and epigastric region,
less part extending
into the left
hypochondriac region
2. formation of the extrahepatic biliary system
3. the location, subsection, the
function of the gallbladder
Position :lies in fossa for
gallbladder on visceral surface
of liver
Four parts
• Fundus of gallbladder 胆囊底
• Body of gallbladder 胆囊体
• Neck of gallbladder 胆囊颈
• Cystic duct 胆囊管
Function: stores and
concentrate bile
4.surface projection of
the fundus of the gallbladder
at the
junction of
right
midclavicular
line and right
costal arch
5. drainage way of bile
Bile is secreted
by the liver cells
Common
hepatic duct
Biliary ductuli
Cystic duct
Right and left
hepatic ducts
Gallbladder (store,
concentrate)
when the fat enters the small
intestine, the gallbladder contracts,
the sphincter of hepatopancreatic
ampulla relax
Common bile duct
Major duodenal papilla
思考题
1.试述在进食与非进食的情况下,胆汁
的产生及排泄途径。
2.名词:肝门; Calot三角
参考书目
• 1.系统解剖学 钟世镇 高等教育出版社
• 2. 系统解剖学(双语版) 刘执玉 科学出
版社
• 3.系统解剖学实习指导 昆明医学院人体
解剖教研室
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