Newborn Nutrition

Developed by D. Ann Currie , RN, MSN
Nutritional Comparison:
Breast Milk
 90% water
 Same weight gain or greater during first 3-4 months
 Fat is variable
 Primary carbohydrate is lactose, trace amounts of
other carbohydrates
Components of Breast Milk
 Whey/Casein ratio changes according to infant needs
 Whey components include alpha-lactalbumin, serum
albumin, lactoferrin, immunoglobulins, and lysozyme
 Low in vitamin D, adequate vitamin C & B complex
 Mineral content similar
 Iron absorption: 50-60%
Advantages of
 Species specific
 Cholesterol in breast milk plays a role in myelination
and neurologic development
 More efficient metabolism of cholesterol
 Composition varies according to gestational age
 Iron is more readily absorbed
Infant Benefits
 Reduced risk of
 Type I or type II diabetes mellitus
 Lymphoma, leukemia, & Hodgkin’s disease
 Obesity
 Hypercholesterolemia
 Asthma
 Protection from
 Respiratory tract and gastrointestinal tract infections
 Necrotizing enterocolitis
 Urinary tract infections
 Otitis media
 Bacterial meningitis
Maternal Physical Benefits
 Decreased postpartum bleeding
 More rapid uterine involution
 Burns additional calories
 Decreased risk of developing
 Breast and ovarian cancer
 Postmenopausal osteoporosis
Maternal Psychosocial
 Improved maternal-infant attachment
 Skin-to-skin contact
 Tactile communication
 Learn behavioral cues and needs
 Prolactin increases feelings of relaxation and euphoria
 Oxytocin heightens responsiveness and receptivity
toward infant
Disadvantages to
Pain due to nipple tenderness
Leaking milk when breasts are full
Embarrassment about breastfeeding
Feeling tied down to the demands of breastfeeding
Unequal feeding responsibilities/fathers left out
Perceptions about diet restrictions
Limited birth control options
Vaginal dryness
Concerns about the safety of medications and
Feeding Interventions:
Birthing Room
 Assess for signs of readiness to feed
 Place newborn on mother’s chest
 Breastfeeding may begin in birthing room
 Assess infant physiologic status during feeding
Feeding Interventions
 Monitor progress
 Education
 Anticipatory guidance
 Evaluate the need for follow-up after discharge
Infant Feeding Education
 On Demand” feeding pattern
 Infant feeding cues
 Normal feeding/sleeping patterns
 Satiety behaviors
 Growth patterns
Breastfeeding Education
 Positioning
 Latching
 Breast milk pumping and storage
 Supplementation
Nutritional Comparison:
 90% water
 Greater weight gain after 3-4 months
 Lactose is only carbohydrate
Components of Formula
 Whey/Casein ratio is 60:40
 Whey components are beta-lactoglobulin and alpha-
 Adequate amounts of vitamins
 Mineral content similar
Formula Feeding Education
 Intake and output expectations
 Preparation and storage of formula
 Feeding technique
 Equipment
 Safety precautions
Growth Rates
 Both breastfed and formula-fed infants experience
growth spurts requiring increased feedings
 Breastfeeding mother should nurse more frequently
 Formula feeding mother should slightly increase
amount of feeding
Influence of Culture
on Infant Feeding
 Perception of breasts as sexual organ
 Perceptions of colostrum
 Language
The End of Part IV