CHAPTER 15: FEEDING INFANTS Answers to Review Questions

Answers to Review Questions
A. By Yourself
1. Propping a bottle while the infant is feeding is not advised because this practice increases the
risk of (a) aspiration of formula and choking, (b) ear infections, and (c) baby bottle tooth
decay (BBTD). It also prevents close physical contact and emotional bonding. Holding and
talking with the infant during feedings promotes emotional bonding between caregiver and
infant; fosters trust; and, allows the caregiver to monitor the infant carefully for choking
(which is essential for the infant’s development).
2. & 3. An acceptable schedule for introducing semisolid food to the infant during the first year
(see Teacher Checklist 15-1) would be:
5–6 months
iron-fortified cereal
6–8 months
pureed peas/pureed peaches
6–8 months
crisp toast and dry cereals that require chewing (as teeth erupt)
8–9 months
pureed meat products
4. Social factors that make feeding time more enjoyable for the infant are:
a. precede feeding time with a few minutes of talking to and playing with the infant
b. hold the child in a secure upright position while feeding
c. cuddle, talk, or sing to the infant during feedings
5. Unmodified cow’s milk or goat’s milk should not be given to infants younger than one year
because they are unable to digest them; intestinal bleeding and other digestive disorders may
develop as a result.
6. Strategies that programs can use to support the breastfeeding mother are outlined in Teacher
Checklist 15-2 and include: providing a quiet area for nursing mothers that includes a sink
for washing hands; providing a comfortable chair, preferably with footrest; making drinking
water available; and, having the infant ready when his/her mother arrives. .
B. As a Group
1. Infants receive all essential nutrients from formula or breast milk (with the exception of
vitamin D which must be supplemented for breast fed infants) during the first five to six
months. Until this time, they are not able to move food from the front to the back of their
mouths, and are, thus, more prone to choking. They are also not physiologically ready to
digest food; enzymes necessary for the digestion of complex carbohydrates (cereals) have not
developed prior to this time, and the infant’s kidneys are not yet able to handle nitrogen
wastes from high protein meat products.
2. Today, breast milk and most formulas are relatively similar in composition. However, the
most significant advantage of breast milk is that it supplies antibodies from the mother that
protect the infant from some communicable illnesses. Breast milk is also lower in sodium,
higher in levels of essential fatty acids, less expensive, readily available, less likely to cause
food allergies, less likely to be contaminated with harmful bacteria, and changes in quantity
and composition to meet the infant’s growing needs. Nutrients in formula are very similar to
those in breast milk, but do not include the protective antibodies. The advantages of formula
feeding are that it provides some freedom for mothers, allows fathers to be more involved in
the feeding process, and is a satisfactory substitute when mothers are not able to breastfeed.
The disadvantages of breastfeeding include requiring the mother to be available (unless she
pumps), paying careful attention to her diet, and reducing the father’s involvement in the
feeding process. The disadvantages of formula feeding include the lack of antibodies,
additional expense, and precise care necessary in preparing bottles.
Feeding practices that may contribute to infant onset obesity are: (a) overfeeding during
bottle feeding, (b) too early introduction of solid foods, and (c) failure to be alert to or
respond to the infant’s signals of satiety, such as pushing the nipple away or turning the head
away from food.
Baby bottle tooth decay (BBTD) is caused by allowing infants to feed for prolonged periods
of time, such as putting them to bed with a bottle or giving them fruit juice in a bottle to
drink at their convenience. Sugars in formula, breast milk, or juices can lead to a high rate of
tooth decay when they remain in contact with developing teeth. Infants should be fed in a
reasonable amount of time and the bottle or breast removed.
The students’ answers will vary based on their findings and feeding criteria.
The students’ answers will depend on their observations.