Roman Citizenship

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Roman Citizenship
versus Jewish
Identity!
What have the Romans ever
done for us….!
Essential Vocabulary
 Citizen: A member of a state or nation who owes
allegiance to its government and is entitled to its
protection.
 City-State: A state that is made up of a selfgoverning city and surrounding territories
 Economy: The management of the resources of
a country or community.
 Ideology: A body of beliefs that guide an
individual, social movement, or large group.
 Treason: The act of trying to overthrow one’s
government or to harm or kill its ruler.
 Civic: Relating to citizenship or city life.
How did Rome grow from
this small Italian citystate…
…To a Huge Empire?
The use of HARD and SOFT power!
HARD POWER:
using military and economic means
to influence the behavior or
interests of others. It is often in
response to short and immediate
crises;
SOFT POWER:
the ability of a political body (state)
to indirectly influence the behavior
or interests of others through
cultural or ideological means.
Soft power is applied consistently
over long periods of time.
EXAMPLES OF HARD
POWER
 The threat of
military force
 Military Invasion
 Military
Occupation
 Spy networks
 Economic
Sanctions
 Trade
embargoes
Examples of soft power
 Diplomacy
 Propaganda
 Popular
Culture and
What examples of hard and soft power
Media exist in the world around you?
 Economic Aid
 Language
 Literature and
art
How did the idea of
‘Citizenship’ help to extend
Roman power?
 One of the main reasons for
Rome’s success in building an
Empire (that and a powerful
army…)
 Roman citizenship given to those
that accepted Roman rule
 Extended even to slaves when
freed.
Roman citizenship was based
upon….
 Duties
- Military service
- Taxes
 Rights
- Right to vote (suffragium)
- Right to make contracts (commercium)
- Right to contract a legal marriage (conubium)
- Right to sue
- Right to stand trial
- Right not to be subject to torture or
scourging.
- A Roman citizen could not be condemned to
death unless found guilty of treason.
How could you acquire
Roman Citizenship?
 Birth: every child born from a legal
marriage of a Roman citizen had
citizenship
 Manumission: the act by which a slave
was freed; children of former
slaves were Roman citizens
 Military service: upon enrollment in
the army, or upon honorable
discharge.
 Imperial grants: the emperors could
grant citizenship to individuals or to
entire communities
So, what was so great
about being a Roman?
Jewish-Roman wars
63b.c.e:
Roman general Pompey subdues Judea
and turns it into a client kingdom.
37b.c.e:
Herod the Great becomes the King of the Jews,
appointed by the Roman Senate; Judea becomes a client
kingdom of the Roman Empire.
6c.e:
Caesar Augustus deposes King Archelaus and establishes
Judea as a Roman province.
66c.e:
70c.e:
Jewish forces defeat a Roman legion at Beth-Horon.
73c.e:
Jewish rebels are defeated by the Romans at the fortress of
Masada.
The city of Jerusalem and its great temple are destroyed by
the Romans.
132-135 C.E:
The Bar-kokhba revolt is the final Jewish rebellion
against the Romans.
Jews are forbidden from entering Jerusalem, and the
Romans re- name Judea “Syria palaestina”.
Why did many Jewish people
reject Roman citizenship?
 Roman taxes made Jewish
peasants and artisans
poorer.
 angered by Greek religious
practices close to
synagogues.
 Romans gave greater
preference to
Greek/Syrian communities.
 Romans exerted authority
over the Jewish
priesthood.
But are these the only
reasons?
 Could not accept
Roman religious
practices.
 Could not accept
the idea of the
emperor as ‘god-like’
(deceased emperors).
 Placed their duties
to their religion and
community above
Roman civic and
legal duties.
 It was their
homeland!
Why didn’t the two
cultures get along?
Romans:
 Angered by cultures that
said their god/beliefs
were superior.
 Ultimate loyalty was to
Rome and the emperor.
 Human improvement was
through civic duty.
Jewish people:
 Their Godso
wasviolently
the ‘true’ reject
God.
 Ultimate loyalty was to
God.
 Human improvement was
through worship and your
relationship with God and
your community.
So why did ancient Jewish peoples
Roman rule?
MAP OF CELTIC TRIBES
AND THEIR MIGRATIONS
Who killed more Romans than
Arminius?
SHE DID!
BOUDICCA and her
daughters!
CELTIC TIMELINE
387 B.C.E: Celtic tribes sack
Rome.
225 B.C.E: Celts from Northern
Italy are defeated by the Romans.
125 B.C.E: Celtic tribes in
Southern Gaul are defeated by
the Romans.
58-52 B.C.E: Celtic tribes in Gaul
rebel against the Romans. The
Roman Army, led by Julius
Caesar, slaughter hundreds of
thousands of Celtic people.
43 C.E: The Romans invade Celtic
Britain.
60-61 C.E: Celts in Britain rebel
against the Romans. They are led
by a Celtic queen called
Boudicca.
WHO WERE THE CELTS?






A group of peoples that occupied lands stretching from Britain
to Central Europe .
The name ‘Celt’ originates from the greek word keltoi, which
means “Barbarian”.
Celtic society was controlled by nobles called ‘chieftains’ and
priests called ‘druids’
Celtic culture was a warrior culture.
Lived in villages surrounding Hill-Forts.
Developed advanced agricultural practices, metal-working skills:
monetary systems (coinage), road networks.
Why did Celtic and German
tribes reject Roman culture?






Already had a developed culture
(settled agriculture, established
religion, codes of law, art…)
Authority and power of local
rulers was taken away and given to
Roman officials.
Resources and riches produced by
their people made Rome and Roman
merchants richer.
Romans ignored and disrespected
aspects of Celtic culture (role of
Women..).
Roman taxes made their people
poorer.
It was their homeland!
The Celts, Jews, and
germanians rejected
Roman power and Roman
Culture . So what?
The Celts, Jews, and
germanians rejected Roman
power and Roman Culture .
So what?
 It helps us to understand how some
civilizations can conquer and control
other civilizations.
 It helps us to see why one culture rejects
the power and influence of another
culture.
 Provides a framework for understanding
how modern nations and cultures relate
to each other:
- Who has power of who?
- Why do they want this power?
- How is this power maintained?
- Why is this power rejected?
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