Roman Citizenship versus Jewish Identity! What have the Romans ever done for us….! Essential Vocabulary Citizen: A member of a state or nation who owes allegiance to its government and is entitled to its protection. City-State: A state that is made up of a selfgoverning city and surrounding territories Economy: The management of the resources of a country or community. Ideology: A body of beliefs that guide an individual, social movement, or large group. Treason: The act of trying to overthrow one’s government or to harm or kill its ruler. Civic: Relating to citizenship or city life. How did Rome grow from this small Italian citystate… …To a Huge Empire? The use of HARD and SOFT power! HARD POWER: using military and economic means to influence the behavior or interests of others. It is often in response to short and immediate crises; SOFT POWER: the ability of a political body (state) to indirectly influence the behavior or interests of others through cultural or ideological means. Soft power is applied consistently over long periods of time. EXAMPLES OF HARD POWER The threat of military force Military Invasion Military Occupation Spy networks Economic Sanctions Trade embargoes Examples of soft power Diplomacy Propaganda Popular Culture and What examples of hard and soft power Media exist in the world around you? Economic Aid Language Literature and art How did the idea of ‘Citizenship’ help to extend Roman power? One of the main reasons for Rome’s success in building an Empire (that and a powerful army…) Roman citizenship given to those that accepted Roman rule Extended even to slaves when freed. Roman citizenship was based upon…. Duties - Military service - Taxes Rights - Right to vote (suffragium) - Right to make contracts (commercium) - Right to contract a legal marriage (conubium) - Right to sue - Right to stand trial - Right not to be subject to torture or scourging. - A Roman citizen could not be condemned to death unless found guilty of treason. How could you acquire Roman Citizenship? Birth: every child born from a legal marriage of a Roman citizen had citizenship Manumission: the act by which a slave was freed; children of former slaves were Roman citizens Military service: upon enrollment in the army, or upon honorable discharge. Imperial grants: the emperors could grant citizenship to individuals or to entire communities So, what was so great about being a Roman? Jewish-Roman wars 63b.c.e: Roman general Pompey subdues Judea and turns it into a client kingdom. 37b.c.e: Herod the Great becomes the King of the Jews, appointed by the Roman Senate; Judea becomes a client kingdom of the Roman Empire. 6c.e: Caesar Augustus deposes King Archelaus and establishes Judea as a Roman province. 66c.e: 70c.e: Jewish forces defeat a Roman legion at Beth-Horon. 73c.e: Jewish rebels are defeated by the Romans at the fortress of Masada. The city of Jerusalem and its great temple are destroyed by the Romans. 132-135 C.E: The Bar-kokhba revolt is the final Jewish rebellion against the Romans. Jews are forbidden from entering Jerusalem, and the Romans re- name Judea “Syria palaestina”. Why did many Jewish people reject Roman citizenship? Roman taxes made Jewish peasants and artisans poorer. angered by Greek religious practices close to synagogues. Romans gave greater preference to Greek/Syrian communities. Romans exerted authority over the Jewish priesthood. But are these the only reasons? Could not accept Roman religious practices. Could not accept the idea of the emperor as ‘god-like’ (deceased emperors). Placed their duties to their religion and community above Roman civic and legal duties. It was their homeland! Why didn’t the two cultures get along? Romans: Angered by cultures that said their god/beliefs were superior. Ultimate loyalty was to Rome and the emperor. Human improvement was through civic duty. Jewish people: Their Godso wasviolently the ‘true’ reject God. Ultimate loyalty was to God. Human improvement was through worship and your relationship with God and your community. So why did ancient Jewish peoples Roman rule? MAP OF CELTIC TRIBES AND THEIR MIGRATIONS Who killed more Romans than Arminius? SHE DID! BOUDICCA and her daughters! CELTIC TIMELINE 387 B.C.E: Celtic tribes sack Rome. 225 B.C.E: Celts from Northern Italy are defeated by the Romans. 125 B.C.E: Celtic tribes in Southern Gaul are defeated by the Romans. 58-52 B.C.E: Celtic tribes in Gaul rebel against the Romans. The Roman Army, led by Julius Caesar, slaughter hundreds of thousands of Celtic people. 43 C.E: The Romans invade Celtic Britain. 60-61 C.E: Celts in Britain rebel against the Romans. They are led by a Celtic queen called Boudicca. WHO WERE THE CELTS? A group of peoples that occupied lands stretching from Britain to Central Europe . The name ‘Celt’ originates from the greek word keltoi, which means “Barbarian”. Celtic society was controlled by nobles called ‘chieftains’ and priests called ‘druids’ Celtic culture was a warrior culture. Lived in villages surrounding Hill-Forts. Developed advanced agricultural practices, metal-working skills: monetary systems (coinage), road networks. Why did Celtic and German tribes reject Roman culture? Already had a developed culture (settled agriculture, established religion, codes of law, art…) Authority and power of local rulers was taken away and given to Roman officials. Resources and riches produced by their people made Rome and Roman merchants richer. Romans ignored and disrespected aspects of Celtic culture (role of Women..). Roman taxes made their people poorer. It was their homeland! The Celts, Jews, and germanians rejected Roman power and Roman Culture . So what? The Celts, Jews, and germanians rejected Roman power and Roman Culture . So what? It helps us to understand how some civilizations can conquer and control other civilizations. It helps us to see why one culture rejects the power and influence of another culture. Provides a framework for understanding how modern nations and cultures relate to each other: - Who has power of who? - Why do they want this power? - How is this power maintained? - Why is this power rejected?