• • List important Roman poets, writers, and historians Examine Roman Art and Architecture
• • During the 2 nd and 3 rd centuries B.C., the Romans adopted many features of the Greek style of art.
– Statues were placed in private homes, and reproductions of popular Greek statues were used.
Roman style differed from Greek in that Roman sculptors produced realistic statues that included even unpleasant physical details.
• • • Romans excelled in architecture, and used Greek styles as well.
– Romans also used forms based on curved lines: arch, vault, and dome.
– Used large amounts of concrete. Romans built a network of about 50,000 miles of roads.
In Rome itself, almost a dozen aqueducts kept a population of one million supplied with water.
• • The high point of Latin literature was reached in the Age of Augustus.
Most distinguished poet of the Augustan Age was Virgil – From northern Italy near Mantua.
– Wrote his greatest work, the Aeneid in honor of Rome.
• Story of Aeneas, the ideal Roman with virtues of duty, piety, and faithfulness.
• • Another Augustan poet was Horace, a friend of Virgil.
Wrote Satires, which points out the “follies and vices of his age”. – Horace’s work often poked fun at the weakness of humans.
• • The most famous work of the Latin age was done by a historian named Livy, who wrote
The History of Rome.
– In 142 books he traced Roman history. Only 35 have survived.
Livy’s weakness as a historian: he was not concerned with factual accuracy.
• • • • Summarize the lesson: I learned that… For example… Therefore… However…
• • • Examine the Role of the Family Identify the implications of slavery Evaluate the daily life of Roman Citizens
• • • The Roman family was headed by the paterfamilias- the dominate male.
– Households also included wives, sons and their wives and children, and unmarried daughters.
Children were raised at home, and upper class children were expected to read.
– Fathers made decisions for education: teach them himself, provide for a tutor, or send to school.
Teachers were often Greek slaves.
– This was because Romans had to learn Greek as well as Latin to prosper in the empire.
• Roman boys learned reading ,writing, moral principles, family values, law, and physical training to prepare them to be soldiers.
– End of childhood was marked at age 16 with a special celebration of a new style of toga.
• • Female weakness- necessary for male guardians Legal marriage age- 12, although 14 was more common. Male legal age- 14, but older was more common.
– Marriage was meant for life, but divorce was introduced in the third century B.C. and was fairly easy for both parties.
• • By 2 nd century B.C. the paterfamilias no longer had complete control.
Upper class woman in the early Empire had more rights.
– Attend races, the theater, and events in the amphitheater. They were forced to sit in a separate female section
• • Slavery was very common in the ancient world, and often times they were treated poorly.
– In demand in a variety of fields, and often used in building roads and public buildings.
– Some slaves revolted against their owners, causing them to live in fear.
Most famous slave revolt occurred in 73 B.C., under the leadership of a gladiator named Spartacus.
• • Rome was overcrowded, congested, and dangerous.
The very wealthy lived in comfortable villas while the poor lived in large family units in apartment blocks called insulae.
– The insuale were poorly built and often collapsed. Fire was very common.
– Most Romans spent much of their time outdoors in the streets.
• • • There were a great deal of public buildings and programs.
– Examples: temples, markets, government buildings and amphitheaters.
Emperors (beginning with Augustus) provided food for the poor.
Entertainment: Circus Maximus, Dramatic Performances, and Gladiator fights.
• What did you learn in section 3?
• • 5-3 Worksheet Page 168 1,2,4,5, and 6