History of ICT Development

a. Mecanical Era
A mechanical computer is a computer whose components are
gearwheel, shaft, crank, and plat made from iron/steel
To move it, powerful energy is needed
Mechanical computer has several weaknesses:
• Counting speed is limited by mechanical movements.
• Information transformation (through gear wheel, lever,
crank) is difficult and unreliable.
Table Mechanical Computer Development
Inventor: Machine
1642 Blaise Pascal
1617 Gottfried Leibniz
Addition, subtraction
Addition, subtraction,
multiplication, division
1827 Charles Babbage:
Difference Engine
Polinominal Evaluation with
finite difference method
1834 Charles Babbage:
Analytical Engine
Multi-purpose computation
1941 Zuse: Z3
Multi-purpose computation
1944 Aiken: Harvard Mark 1 Multi-purpose computation
b. First Generation (Vacuum Tubes)
information is sent by electric current (electron movement) whose speed
is close to light velocity (300,000 km/second)
The first multipurpose electronic computer is ENIAC (Electrical
Numerical Integrator and Calculator) invented in 1943 by John W.
Mauchly & J Presper Eckert. ENIAC has the following characteristics:
Consists of 18,000 vacum tubes
Weighs 30 tons
Spends 140 kilowatts of electric power
Was programmed with 6000 multiposition electric switches
programs and data were stored in separate memories, so that data entry
and alteration were not a boring job
EDVAC (Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer)
was the first stored program computer
In 1946 John von Neuman began to create the new stored
program computer, i.e. IAS Machine. This system has been
used as the basic concept of electronic computer
development up to now.
Von Neuman Machine has five parts:
Arithmetic logic unit (ALU)
Program control unit
Input/output (I/O) device
c. Second Generation Computer (Transistor):
• The transistor era was marked by the innovation on
hardware and some program design methodology
(software technology).
• It used transistor as vacum tubes substitute.
• “High level” programming language did not depend on
independent machine such as ALGOL, COBOL,
• Some of the computers were PDP, IBM, and CDC.
Third Generation Computer (Integrated Circuit):
In this era some of the development were:
• IC was used as transistor substitute, so the size was smaller.
• Semiconductor memory was used as main memory.
• Microprogramming technique, makes CPU design simpler and more
• Parallel processing was used, so counting was faster.
• Operating system was used.
Some types of third generation computer from IBM (Mainframe) were:
• IBM System/360
IBM System/370
• IBM System/4300
IBM System/3900
• Others were the series of PDP from DEC
Fourth Generation Computer (VLSI): 1980 to now
In 1980, technology of VLSI (very large scale integration)
has enabled the use of hundreds and finally millions of
transistors in one chip.
This technology enables the creation of CPU, memory and
other components in a single chip which can be produced
massively in a cheap price.
At last, it can produce smaller, faster, and cheaper computers,
that everyone can afford. This technology starts the era of
Personal Computer (PC).
Fifth Generation Computer
The term fifth generation computer is created by a
Japanese to describe a “smart” computer which was
built in the mid 1990s.
The development involves artificial intelligence, expert
system, and natural programming language.
The focus of the fifth generation is connectivity, by
connecting a computer to other computers, to form
parallel computation.
The History of Telephone
 Who first invented a telephone? He is Alexander Graham
Bell. He asked his friend Thomas Watson to help him
provide the equipments
 On 14 February 1876, Bell patented his invention, but
according to US Patent Office Bell, it was legally patented
on March 7 under the term “electric speaking telephone”.
 Bell kept on developing his invention and for the first time
he succeded to send a message saying ”Watson, come
here, I want you” on 10 March 1876.
 On 30 Januari 1877, Bell's U.S. patented electromagnetic
telephone using a permanent magnet, iron diaphragm, and
call bell. The patent number is 186,787.
The History of Wireless
In 1896 Marconi showed his invention in England
and obtained his first patent for this invention