Chapter 20, Section 2 PPT

The Emergence of Mass
Chapter 20
Today - 1/29/13
Chapter 20, Section 2 Notes (Red = Really,
really important)
Map Activity - where are these places???
Guided Reading 20-2 (Review of Material - fill
in the blanks as you re-read through the
History and You
When you attend a crowded event, what kinds
of problems arise from having so many people
in one place?
The New Urban
The new industrial world leads to the
emergence of mass society.
Governments has to consider how to appeal to
the masses and not just the wealthy elite.
Housing was the biggest area for concern.
Growth of Urban
People had to leave rural areas and move into
the cities to find work.
In 1850, urban dwellers made up about 40% of
In 1890, urban dwellers had increased to 60%
Between 1800 and 1900, the population in
London grew from 960,000 - 6,500,00.
Improvements in Public
Health and Sanitation.
Water contamination spread cholera.
Board of Health were created to continue with the
improvements in housing and water quality.
Buildings were now required to have running water and
internal drainage for NEW buildings.
Clean water and an effective sewage system were critical to
public health.
Social Structure
After 1871, people enjoyed a higher standard of
living but poverty still remained.
The main social classes were: New Elite, The
Middle Class, and The Working Class.
However, there are smaller breakdowns in each
The New Elite
At the top of European society stood a wealthy
elite (aristocracy).
This group made up only 5% of the population
but controlled from 30-40% of the wealth.
Eventually, industrialists, bankers, and
merchants formed the upper middle class.
The Middle Class
The middle class contained lawyers, doctors,
members of the civil service, business managers,
engineers, architects, accountants, and chemists.
The lower middle class included small
shopkeepers, traders, and prosperous farmers.
The SIR created a new group of workers in the
lower middle class: traveling salespeople,
bookkeepers, telephone operators, department
store sales people, and secretaries.
The Working Classes
Below the middle class on the social scale were
the working classes - also referred to as the
lower classes - which made up almost 80% of
the European population.
They might be skilled artisans or semiskilled
laborers but many were unskilled day laborers
or domestic servants.
Reforms created better living conditions.
History and You
Do you think of any jobs as “women’s work”?
Women’s Experiences
In 1800, women were mainly defined by their
family and household roles.
Women could not be a party in a lawsuit, could
not sit on a jury, could not hold property in
their own names, and could not write a will.
Women at this time were heavily dependent on
The Marriage Ideal
Throughout the 1800’s marriage remained the
only honorable and available career for most
The number of children per family declined
which allowed women to eventually work.
The decline in birth rate was tied to improved
economic conditions, as well as to increased use
of birth control.
The Family Ideal
The family was the central institution of
middle-class life.
This middle class togetherness led to the
formation and recognizing of holidays.
Middle class women rarely worked, it was
mainly working class women who worked
outside of the home.
Working children’s childhood was over by 10.
New Job Opportunities
The belief was that women should remain at
home to bear and nurture children and should
not be allowed in the industrial workforce.
Eventually women did work because there were
not enough men to fill jobs.
Women’s Rights
Amalie Sieveking - Nursing pioneer who
founded the Female Association for the Care of
the Poor and Sick in Hamburg.
Suffrage - the right to vote.
Emmeline Pankhurst - founded the Women’s
Social and Political Union in 1903.
Education and Leisure
Universal education was a product of mass
Boys and girls between 6 and 12 were required
to attend school.
The state also took responsibility of training
Public Education
The SIR caused companies to need skilled
laborers. If you had an elementary education
you had a leg up on many other applicants.
The chief motive for public education was
They felt education created better education
Public Education
Compulsory education created a demand for
Women naturally fit into this nurturing role.
The most immediate result of public education
was an increase in literacy.
Once literacy expanded, a mass media
developed: Newspapers.
New Forms of Leisure
Amusement parks, dance halls, and organized
team sports became enjoyable ways for people
to spend leisure hours.
1. Leisure was now seen as what people did
after work.
2. New leisure was more passive.
3. People now paid for leisure activities.