The Emergence of Mass Society Chapter 20 Today - 1/29/13 Chapter 20, Section 2 Notes (Red = Really, really important) Map Activity - where are these places??? Guided Reading 20-2 (Review of Material - fill in the blanks as you re-read through the section) History and You When you attend a crowded event, what kinds of problems arise from having so many people in one place? The New Urban Environment The new industrial world leads to the emergence of mass society. Governments has to consider how to appeal to the masses and not just the wealthy elite. Housing was the biggest area for concern. Growth of Urban Population People had to leave rural areas and move into the cities to find work. In 1850, urban dwellers made up about 40% of population. In 1890, urban dwellers had increased to 60% Between 1800 and 1900, the population in London grew from 960,000 - 6,500,00. Improvements in Public Health and Sanitation. Water contamination spread cholera. Board of Health were created to continue with the improvements in housing and water quality. Buildings were now required to have running water and internal drainage for NEW buildings. Clean water and an effective sewage system were critical to public health. jjd Social Structure After 1871, people enjoyed a higher standard of living but poverty still remained. The main social classes were: New Elite, The Middle Class, and The Working Class. However, there are smaller breakdowns in each category. The New Elite At the top of European society stood a wealthy elite (aristocracy). This group made up only 5% of the population but controlled from 30-40% of the wealth. Eventually, industrialists, bankers, and merchants formed the upper middle class. The Middle Class The middle class contained lawyers, doctors, members of the civil service, business managers, engineers, architects, accountants, and chemists. The lower middle class included small shopkeepers, traders, and prosperous farmers. The SIR created a new group of workers in the lower middle class: traveling salespeople, bookkeepers, telephone operators, department store sales people, and secretaries. The Working Classes Below the middle class on the social scale were the working classes - also referred to as the lower classes - which made up almost 80% of the European population. They might be skilled artisans or semiskilled laborers but many were unskilled day laborers or domestic servants. Reforms created better living conditions. History and You Do you think of any jobs as “women’s work”? Women’s Experiences In 1800, women were mainly defined by their family and household roles. Women could not be a party in a lawsuit, could not sit on a jury, could not hold property in their own names, and could not write a will. Women at this time were heavily dependent on men. The Marriage Ideal Throughout the 1800’s marriage remained the only honorable and available career for most women. The number of children per family declined which allowed women to eventually work. The decline in birth rate was tied to improved economic conditions, as well as to increased use of birth control. The Family Ideal The family was the central institution of middle-class life. This middle class togetherness led to the formation and recognizing of holidays. Middle class women rarely worked, it was mainly working class women who worked outside of the home. Working children’s childhood was over by 10. New Job Opportunities The belief was that women should remain at home to bear and nurture children and should not be allowed in the industrial workforce. Eventually women did work because there were not enough men to fill jobs. Women’s Rights Amalie Sieveking - Nursing pioneer who founded the Female Association for the Care of the Poor and Sick in Hamburg. Suffrage - the right to vote. Emmeline Pankhurst - founded the Women’s Social and Political Union in 1903. Education and Leisure Universal education was a product of mass society. Boys and girls between 6 and 12 were required to attend school. The state also took responsibility of training teachers. Public Education The SIR caused companies to need skilled laborers. If you had an elementary education you had a leg up on many other applicants. The chief motive for public education was political. They felt education created better education voters. Public Education Compulsory education created a demand for teachers. Women naturally fit into this nurturing role. The most immediate result of public education was an increase in literacy. Once literacy expanded, a mass media developed: Newspapers. New Forms of Leisure Amusement parks, dance halls, and organized team sports became enjoyable ways for people to spend leisure hours. 1. Leisure was now seen as what people did after work. 2. New leisure was more passive. 3. People now paid for leisure activities.