Northern Industry & Southern Cotton In 1801, inventor Eli Whitney displayed the first use of interchangeable parts in front of President John Adams. How did the use of these identical parts forever change the manufacturing industry that developed in the United States? By using interchangeable parts, industry was moved from the homes of the skilled laborers to the factories. Factories became the center of industry and made mass production possible. How would the Industrial Revolution change the workforce in America? International trade was the primary source of America’s income up to the early 19th century. Farms produced grain and tobacco to be shipped to Great Britain, southern Europe, and the West Indies. What two events caused such a drastic shift in American industries? Jefferson’s Embargo Act of 1807 prohibited America from shipping goods to Europe, and this crippled the foreign trade that the US profited from. The War of 1812 followed the repeal of the embargo but the British blockade of the American harbors during wartime led to America investing capital into their own industries. New England needed to industrializes in order to continue functioning. Shipping and trade had been ruined due to the embargo and blockade. Britain was the leading industrial power in the world and kept designers and engineers from leaving the country for fear of their plans leaking to other countries. Samuel Slater, a mill worker from England, left Britain in disguise and established the first successful textile mill in Pawtucket, RI in 1793. Although Slater’s mill brought great change to New England, why was it considered deficient? Slater’s mills only mass produced thread, not cloth or textiles. It took the visionary design of three Bostonians to make this factory possible. Francis Cabot Lowell, Nathan Appleton and Patrick Tracy Jackson built a weaving factory in Waltham, MA in 1813. The mill was powered by water controlled behind a dam. This in turn powered machinery that mass produced textiles. NORTH Smaller farms grew crops and raised livestock that did not require much labor. This led to the use of slavery declining and, by 1804, abolishment. The North also became more outspoken politically and religiously towards slavery. SOUTH The cotton gin led to the use of short-staple cotton, which was previously too hard to clean but easier to grow. “Cotton Kingdoms” sprung up in Mississippi, Louisiana, and Alabama and were driven by massive plantations. Eli Whitney’s invention that revolutionized the cotton farming industry subsequently led to the rise in slavery as well. Increase in cotton production sped up the amount of slaves owned in the South. From 1790 to 1810 cotton production rose from 3,000 bales a year to 178,000 bales, while slave numbers rose from 700,000 to 1.2 million. Just in 1808, slave traders brought 250,000 slaves to America. This was equal to the number of slaves brought here between the years of 1619 and 1776 (157 years!) Notice the map to the right… there are no black dots (which represent 200 slaves) in New England. Does this mean the North did not play a role in the slavery boom of the late 18th and early 19th century? Since the North and South (as well as West) were developing differently, a plan was needed to unify these divergent parts of the nation. A three part plan was proposed by President Madison in 1815, and was supported by House Speaker Henry Clay and John C. Calhoun. 1) Developing a transportation system and other internal improvements 2) Establishing a protective tariff 3) Resurrecting the national bank The idea behind this system was that communication, travel, and transport needed to be advanced in order for all parts of the nation to become self-sufficient. The Erie Canal was one of the most impressive projects of the American System. It stretched 363 miles and took 8yrs to dig. This canal linked the Hudson River to Lake Erie, thus connecting the Atlantic Ocean to the Great Lakes Turnpikes were also built throughout the nation and were financed through collecting tolls. The National Road construction began in 1811, and when completed by 1838 connected Maryland to Illinois. During the early to mid-19th century, railroads, canals, and roads were built all over the U.S. to help connect all the areas as we began expanding westward. Why was a protective tariff necessary as part of the American System? After the War of 1812, British goods such as iron and textiles, were far below the American prices. To keep American industry thriving, they used the tariff to allow for the U.S. to compete with Britain. How could a tariff meant to help the nation anger various parts of the U.S.? Northerners depended on manufacturing, so they welcomed the tariff. Farmers in the west and south did not agree with a tax that made goods more expensive for them Calhoun from the South (SC) and Clay from the West (KY) helped pass the tariff. The Second National Bank of the United States was less problematic than the Tariff of 1816. This bank would guarantee a national currency which would facilitate a national unity for business and trade. The bank was chartered for a 20 year period, but would soon come under attack by the future President Andrew Jackson. With the coming years came an exuberant feeling throughout the nation. The growth and economic prosperity were accompanied with a feeling of unity. When James Monroe was elected, he toured New England and was warmly accepted. This was a new feeling since he was a Southern Republican in a Federalist dominant state. Even with these “good feelings,” America still had a tenuous balance between the slave and free states which would become further strained as America began pushing westward. HW: DE Notes chapter 7.2 Leave the room better than you found it and have a great day!