North: Industrial base
1. Geographic Factors Aiding Industrialization
a. Rivers:
1. provided water power for
running machines
2. served as natural highways
ex. Erie Canal – 1825 – connected
NYC and Lake Erie
3. Deep water ports
4. Labor - cheap immigrant labor
arriving from Europe
b. Political factors:
1. 1816 – formation of the 2nd National
Bank - depository capable of lending
out large sums of money.
2. 1816 - tariff – helped American
textile industry
c. Technological factors:
1. invention of standardized parts by
Whitney - use in manufacturing of
2. Robert Fulton’s Steamboat - The
Clarmont or Fulton’s Folly
3. 1830-1840s building of railroads
South - Plantation Agriculture System
1. Cash Crops:
a. Cotton
b. Rice
c. Tobacco
2. Climate conducive to year-round farming
3. Cotton Gin invented by Whitney - sped up
production of cotton
4. England’s demand for cotton
5. Free labor - slaves
A cotton gin (short for cotton engine) is a machine that
quickly and easily separates cotton fibers from their
seeds, a job that otherwise must be performed
painstakingly by hand.
Eli Whitney – invented in 1793 and patented in 1794
West: small family owned farms
1. Land rich in nutrients needed for growing
2. Government made land available for free
or charged small amounts to purchase.
Remembered for three reasons:
a. Sectional conflicts
b. Democratic reforms
c. Treatment of Native Americans
a. Sectional conflicts:
1. Tariff: North and West were for it,
the South was against it.
The tariff of 1828 raised costs 50%.
Tariff was nicknamed “the tariff of
2. Nullification issue: South Carolina
said that states have the right to nullify
an act of Congress.
(states rights)
3. Bank Issue: North was for it but South
and West were against.
Jackson siding with the farmers
destroyed the bank. When it came up for
rechartering, he vetoed the bill.
This in return hurt the economy. Small
banks came into place and gave out
unwise loans.
b. Treatment of Native Americans:
1. Indian Resettlement Act:
In 1830 all Indians were ordered to move
west of the Mississippi River
2. Trail of Tears: Cherokee’s were ordered to
move from Georgia to Oklahoma.
Cherokees were unwilling to make this
Worchester v. Georgia - Court rules that
the Gov’t. was wrong in taking their land.
They were breaking a contract.
Jackson ignored Court’s ruling and forced the
Native Americans to move.
Trip was over 800 miles. 25% died on the
trip west.
3. Democratic Reforms:
a. Universal suffrage for white males
b. 1828 - caucuses gave way to
nominating conventions
c. Spoils system
d. Women’s Rights - 1848 - Seneca Falls
e. Temperance Movement - WCTU
f. Dorthea Dix and the mentally ill.
g. Compulsory and free public education.