ECONOMIC SECTIONS OF THE U.S. North: Industrial base 1. Geographic Factors Aiding Industrialization a. Rivers: 1. provided water power for running machines 2. served as natural highways ex. Erie Canal – 1825 – connected NYC and Lake Erie GREAT LAKES: 3. Deep water ports 4. Labor - cheap immigrant labor arriving from Europe b. Political factors: 1. 1816 – formation of the 2nd National Bank - depository capable of lending out large sums of money. 2. 1816 - tariff – helped American textile industry c. Technological factors: 1. invention of standardized parts by Whitney - use in manufacturing of rifles 2. Robert Fulton’s Steamboat - The Clarmont or Fulton’s Folly 3. 1830-1840s building of railroads South - Plantation Agriculture System 1. Cash Crops: a. Cotton b. Rice c. Tobacco 2. Climate conducive to year-round farming 3. Cotton Gin invented by Whitney - sped up production of cotton 4. England’s demand for cotton 5. Free labor - slaves A cotton gin (short for cotton engine) is a machine that quickly and easily separates cotton fibers from their seeds, a job that otherwise must be performed painstakingly by hand. Eli Whitney – invented in 1793 and patented in 1794 West: small family owned farms 1. Land rich in nutrients needed for growing crops. 2. Government made land available for free or charged small amounts to purchase. JACKSONIAN DEMOCRACY: 1829-1837 Remembered for three reasons: a. Sectional conflicts b. Democratic reforms c. Treatment of Native Americans a. Sectional conflicts: 1. Tariff: North and West were for it, the South was against it. The tariff of 1828 raised costs 50%. Tariff was nicknamed “the tariff of abominations”. 2. Nullification issue: South Carolina said that states have the right to nullify an act of Congress. (states rights) 3. Bank Issue: North was for it but South and West were against. Jackson siding with the farmers destroyed the bank. When it came up for rechartering, he vetoed the bill. This in return hurt the economy. Small banks came into place and gave out unwise loans. b. Treatment of Native Americans: 1. Indian Resettlement Act: In 1830 all Indians were ordered to move west of the Mississippi River 2. Trail of Tears: Cherokee’s were ordered to move from Georgia to Oklahoma. Cherokees were unwilling to make this move. Worchester v. Georgia - Court rules that the Gov’t. was wrong in taking their land. They were breaking a contract. Jackson ignored Court’s ruling and forced the Native Americans to move. Trip was over 800 miles. 25% died on the trip west. 3. Democratic Reforms: a. Universal suffrage for white males b. 1828 - caucuses gave way to nominating conventions c. Spoils system d. Women’s Rights - 1848 - Seneca Falls Convention e. Temperance Movement - WCTU f. Dorthea Dix and the mentally ill. g. Compulsory and free public education.