Totalitarianism, Fascism, Nazism and Communism


New Leaders and New Ideas in Europe during the 1930s



Communism Fascism

These theories are completely different theories that are completed opposed to one another; however they demonstrate the same behavior.

How did Totalitarianism come about?

Step 1 – Treaty of Versailles.

Step 2 – Stock Market Crash of 1929.

Step 3 – Great Depression of the 1930s.

Step 4 – Increased influence from new political parties that emphasized government control.

Step 5 – Total control of the government by a dictator.

You asked for it…so here it is…Welcome to a

Totalitarian state!!!

Characteristics of Totalitarianism

Government establishes complete control of all aspects of the state.

Political, military, economy, social, and cultural.

Highly nationalistic.

Flags, salutes, rallies, and uniforms.

Strict controls and laws.

Military state.

Secret police, army, and navy.

Characteristics of Totalitarianism


Opposing literature and ideas.



Radio, newspapers, and posters.

One leader

A charismatic dictator.

Total conformity of people to ideas and the leader.

Terror and Fear.

Soviet Communism

Also known as “Stalinism”.

Stalin was the leader of the Soviet Union from


Combines elements of communism with a totalitarian and military state.


Fascism’s name comes from the “fasces”.

An ancient Roman symbol of authority.

Intense nationalism and elitists mindset.

Totalitarian control

Interests of the state more important than individual rights.

Maintains class system and private ownership.

Most well known example is in Italy.

Lead by Benito Mussolini from 1922-1943.


Extreme form of Fascism, Nationalism, and


Based on the beliefs of the National Socialist German

Workers Party.

Belief in a superior race.

The Aryan or “master race”.

Belief that all Germans should have a

“living space” in Europe.

Violent hatred of Jews.

Belief that Jews were the cause of all of

Germany’s problems.

Led by Adolf Hitler from 1933-1945.