Chapter 11 The Age of Imperialism 1850-1914 Section 3 Europeans Claim Muslim Land • Europeans Grab Territory – Russia and the Crimean War Geopolitics: taking land for its strategic location or products • Access to sea trade routes focuses attention on Ottoman lands • Crimean War is an example of geopolitics • RUS attacks Ottomans in 1853 to gain warmwater port & access to Mediterranean Sea • Brit & FR join in to stop RUS expansion • RUS loses, but Ottomans are shown to be weak; still lose land b/c of rebellions • By 1914 Ottoman Empire declined to 1/3 of its greatest size • Egypt Initiates Reforms – Military and Economic Reforms • Muhammad Ali breaks away from Ottoman control and rules Egypt • Begins series of reforms in military and economy – modernizes to keep out Euro control • Shifts Egypt agriculture from food crops to cash crops (similar to Euro colonial policies) Exploit: to take advantage of – The Suez Canal • Egypt builds Suez Canal • Modernization creates huge debt – Brits take over financial control of canal, occupy Egypt in 1882 • Persia Pressured to Change – The exploitation of Persia • Rus wants access to Persian Gulf and Indian Ocean • Brit wants Persian oil and Afghanistan • Persia gives in to Western businesses – Battle over Tobacco • Persian ruler agrees to allow Brit to export tobacco • Persians boycott tobacco, leads to riots • 1907, Rus and Brit seize and divide Persia between them as spheres of influence Group Work Critical Thinking Questions In groups of 4, work together to answer the following questions: 1. What part did internal corruption play in the decline of Ottoman power? 2. Why did the discovery of oil in Persia increase the value of Ottoman territory? 3. In what way were the RUS, BR, and FR motivations in the Crimean War similar? 4. How was Muhammad Ali’s promotion of cotton production similar to Euro imperialists’ actions in AFR? 5. Why was the completion of the Suez Canal cause for international celebration? 6. What advantages did granting business concessions to Western countries offer Persia? 7. How did Persia’s granting of concessions eventually lead to its takeover by BR & RUS? Critical Thinking Answers 1. It led to a weakened economy and technological stagnation. 2. The oil had to pass through Ottoman land to Europe. 3. They all wanted to control Ottoman territory 4. Both substituted production of cash crops for food crops 5. It greatly decreased the time needed to travel from Euro to East AFR and Asia 6. Income, development of their resources, and participation in world events 7. Concessions allowed Western countries to establish an economic foothold in Persia, which they exploited when the Persian gov’t lost control of the country.