Chapter 11 sec 3_4

Chapter 11
The Age of Imperialism
Essential Question
• Discuss the following questions with your
neighbors and be prepared to share with
the class:
1. What do you know about the Middle
Section 3
Europeans Claim Muslim Land
• Crimean War
Geopolitics: taking
land for its strategic
location or products
– Example of geopolitics
– RUS attacks Ottomans to gain warmwater port on the Black Sea & access to
Mediterranean Sea
– RUS loses, but Ottomans are shown to
be weak; still lose land b/c of rebellions
• Egypt Initiates Reforms
– Muhammad Ali breaks away from
Ottoman control and rules Egypt
– Begins series of reforms in military and
• modernizes to keep out Euro control
– Shifts Egypt agriculture from food crops
to cash crops (similar to Euro colonial
Exploit: take
advantage of/ to use
Sphere of influence:
an area in which an
outside power claims
exclusive investment
or trading privileges
– The Suez Canal
• Egypt builds Suez Canal
• Modernization creates huge debt
– Brits take over financial control of canal and
occupy Egypt
• The exploitation of Persia
– Rus wants access to Persian Gulf and
Indian Ocean
– Brit wants Persian oil and Afghanistan
– 1907, Rus and Brit seize and divide
Persia between them as spheres of
Group Work
Critical Thinking Questions
In groups of 3, use your textbook and notebook and work together
to answer the following questions:
1. What part did internal corruption play in the decline of
Ottoman power?
2. Why did the discovery of oil in Persia increase the value of
Ottoman territory?
3. In what way were the RUS, BR, and FR motivations in the
Crimean War similar?
4. How was Muhammad Ali’s promotion of cotton production
similar to Euro imperialists’ actions in AFR?
5. Why was the completion of the Suez Canal cause for
international celebration?
6. What advantages did granting business concessions to
Western countries offer Persia?
7. How did Persia’s granting of concessions eventually lead to
its takeover by BR & RUS?
Critical Thinking Answers
It led to a weakened economy and technological
The oil had to pass through Ottoman land to Europe.
They all wanted to control Ottoman territory
Both substituted production of cash crops for food
It greatly decreased the time needed to travel from
Euro to East AFR and Asia
Income, development of their resources, and
participation in world events
Concessions allowed Western countries to establish
an economic foothold in Persia, which they exploited
when the Persian gov’t lost control of the country.
Section 4
British Imperialism in India
• East India Company Dominates
Sepoy: Indian soldier
– Company has its own army led by
Brit officers & staffed by sepoys
• Brit’s “Jewel in the Crown”, most
valuable colony
• British Expand Control Over
– Impact of Colonialism
• Brits control political & economic
• Cash crops result in loss of selfsufficiency, famine
• Indian life disrupted by missionaries
and racist attitudes
• Brits modernize India’s economy,
improve public health
Mutiny: to rebel
against authority;
soldiers rebel
commanding officer
Cartridge: holds
bullets for a rifle
Arranged marriage:
families decide
which couples will
marry while they
are still children
• The Sepoy Mutiny
– INs rebel
• Sepoys refuse to use cartridges of new
rifles b/c religious reasons
• Many are jailed; others mutiny
– Turning point
• Brits put down rebellion, take direct
control of IN
• Raj –period of Brit rule after India
came under the Brit crown
• Nationalism Surfaces in India
– Ram Mohun Roy “father of modern
• In order to move towards
independence, IND needed to end
traditional practices like arranged
British Imperialism in India
East Indian troops defeated
Indian forces at the Battle of
Plassey after Mughal rule had
become weak
British establish a railroad
network in India
British restricted Indian owned
industries such as cotton textiles
and reduced food production in
favor cash crops
The Sepoy Mutiny occurs and
uprisings spread over much of
northern India
Calls by reformers for India to
modernize, nationalist feelings,
resentment over British
discriminatory policies
British partition Bengal into
Hindu and Muslim sections
East Indian company gains
control of India
Railroads transported raw materials from
interior to ports & manufactured goods
from ports to interior; India becomes
more profitable for Britain; India
developed a modern economy and was
geographically unified
Villagers are no longer selfsufficient; food production declines
and famine sets in
British government assumed direct
control of India; racism and mutual
distrust were intensified
Indians form Indian National
Congress and then the Muslim
League, which eventually call for
Acts of terrorism forced British to
divide province in a different way
to avoid open rebellion