The Brain - AP Psychology Community


The Brain

Physiology and behavior:

Localization of function

• Explain one study related to localization of function in the brain.

• Examine one interaction between cognition and physiology in terms of behavior

(Evaluate two relevant studies).

Early investigation of localization of function


• The attempt to make inferences about ones personality and intelligence by examining skull formation.

• Done by manually searching for bumps and indentations.

Franz Joseph Gall

In general….

• If there is a bump or protrusion in that area it indicates

MORE of that ability or trait.

• If there is an indentation it indicates a

deficiency of that ability or trait.


• Do you think it is a valid science?

• Work was picked up by

Cesare Lombroso

• These ideas, although dangerous, are still the basis behind modern day criminal profiling.

Case studies of people with naturally occurring brain damage

Phineas Gage

Paul Broca

• Worked with a patient he called “Tan”

• “Tan” could only say the word “Tan”

• “Tan” died

Broca’s Area

• In post-mortem autopsy, Broca found damage in the left frontal area of Tan’s brain.

• Broca discovered the area of our brain that is responsible for making our mouth move during speech.

Broca’s Aphasia

• Aphasia means damage to a speech area of our brain.

• Very common in TBI or stroke patients.

Sarah Scott

Carl Wernicke

• Discovered the area of our brain that deals with the comprehension of written and spoken speech.

• Left temporal lobe.

• So what do you think

Wernicke’s Aphasia is like?

Studies of individuals who have undergone brain surgery


• HM (Henry Gustav

Molaison) had epilepsy and had part of his temporal lobes removed in hope to reduce seizures.

• They took out a little too much and removed part of his hippocampus.

• Experienced both

Retrograde and

Anterograde Amnesia.

Memories and the Hippocampus

Retrograde Amnesia

• Forget past.

• It can be time period, event or select person.

Anterograde Amnesia

• Cannot form new memories.

Roger Sperry and the Split Brain

• The top of our brain is divided into a left and right hemisphere.

• Contralateral controlled- left controls right side of body and vice versa.

• This is called Brain Lateralization.

• Lefties are better at spatial and creative tasks.

• Righties are better at logic.

Roger Sperry and the Split Brain

• Corpus Collosum attaches the two hemispheres of cerebral cortex.

• Sperry first experimented by taking out the Corpus

Collosum from cats.

• Then tried it on 10 epileptic patients.

They became known as split brain