The Enlightenment Spreads

The Enlightenment
Chapter 6 Section 3
Mr. Porter
Neoclassical Style
Pulteney Bridge
 Changes in architecture and paintings.
 Baroque- which uses classical Greek
and Roman structure of influence.
 As these changes occurred with this
new artistic style it became known as
neoclassical (“new classical”).
Paris in 1700’s
 Cultural and Intellectual
capital of Europe.
 The brightest minds
would come to Paris.
 Wealthy women of Paris
would hold social
gatherings in salons
were these intellects in
art, science, writers and
philosophers would
discuss their ideas.
Salons Continued
 Marie-Therese Geoffrin leading hostesses of this
 She help finance Denis Diderot project of a group of
books in which leading scholars of Europe would post
articles and essays in it.
 Called it the Encyclopedia
 With the encyclopedia, the ideas of the enlightenment
began to spread throughout Europe.
 These ideas angered the French Government and the
Catholic Church.
Mozart & Beethoven
Music & Literature
 Three Austrian Compossers Franz Joseph Haydn,
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and Ludwig van
 New style of writing began to appear with fictional
 Very popular with the middle class who enjoyed
entertaining stories written in everyday language.
 Samuel Richardson novel Pamela is seen as the first
true English novel.
Enlightenment & Monarchy
 Many philosophes tried to convince monarchs to
respect the people’s rights.
 Monarch’s that took on the ideas of the Enlightenment
were known as enlightened despots.
 Although these monarch’s supported these ideas, they
had no plans on giving up their rule.
 Three rulers that were the leaders of the enlightened
Frederick the Great
 King of Prussia (1740-1786)
 Goal to strengthen the country
 Granted Religious Freedom
 Reduced Censorship
 Improved Education
 Reformed Justice System
 He called himself “the first
servant of the state”
Joseph II
 Ruler of Austria (1780-1790)
 Introduced legal reforms
 Introduced freedom of the
 Supported freedom of worship
 Abolished serfdom
 Peasants to be paid cash for
their labor
 Nobles resisted this change
Catherine the Great
 Ruled Russia (1762-1796)
 She admired Voltaire
 Pushed for Religious freedom
 Abolish torture & capital
 Actually she did little for the
peasants of Russia
 Russian peasants would revolt
in 1773.
Catherine the Great
 After crushing the rebellion,
she realized she needed
nobles to support the throne.
 She made a focus to expand
her empire
 Northern shore of the Black
 Expanded into parts of