What is Intelligence?

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Preview p.70
1. List behaviors that you believe to be
distinctively characteristic of either
particularly intelligent or of particularly
unintelligent people.
2. Identify two people (living or dead) that you
consider to be intelligent. Explain.
Chapter 11 Intelligence
pp. 430-442
NB p. 71
Fun Facts About Intelligence
• School attendance correlates with IQ. Staying
in school can elevate IQ or, more accurately,
keep it from slipping.
• IQ is related to breast-feeding.
• IQ varies by birth date.
• IQ may be influenced by the school cafeteria
menu.
• IQ is correlated with head size
What is Intelligence?
• The mental capacity to solve problems and
and adapt to the environment.
Spearman’s two factor theory
• g factor = general intelligence
• s factor = specific mental abilities
• According to Spearman, if a person was
intelligent in one area, then he or she was
intelligent in other areas as well
Howard Gardner: Multiple Intelligences
• “If I know you’re very good in music, I can
predict with just about zero accuracy whether
you’re going to be good or bad in other
things.”
• Intelligence is not fixed and all individuals
possess at least eight different types of
intelligences
Savant Syndrome
• A condition in which a person otherwise
limited in mental ability has an exceptional
specific skill, such as in computation or
drawing.
• Occurs in a narrow range of skills: calendar
calculating, music, lightning calculations and
mathematics, art, mechanical ability,
prodigious memory
Sternberg’s triarchic theory
• Practical – the ability to adapt to changes in
the environment
• Analytical – the reasoning and problem
solving that is evaluated by most intelligence
tests
• Creative – the capacity to create new ideas
and unique solutions to problems
Sternberg’s Successful Intelligence
• Alice is a good student, always getting good
grades until she reached graduate school.
Required to come up with original ideas, Alice
began to fall behind. Barbara is not such a
good student, but she’s brimming over with
ideas for research. Celia is neither a good nor
a creative student, but she’s street smart; she
knows how to play the game – how to get
things done.
Comparing Theories of Intelligence
Comparing Theories of Intelligence
Comparing Theories of Intelligence
Comparing Theories of Intelligence
Comparing Theories of Intelligence
Emotional Intelligence
“The ability to monitor one’s own and others’
feelings and emotions, to discriminate among
them, and to use this information to guide
one’s thinking and one’s own actions.”
-- John Mayer & Peter Salovey
Emotional Intelligence Scale
•
•
•
•
•
Reverse scores for items 5, 28, and 33
Add all items
Means of 135 for therapists; 120 for prisoners
Means of 131 for females; 125 for males
High scores associated with greater optimism,
less depression, and less impulsivity
Intelligence and Creativity
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Expertise
Imaginative thinking skills
A venturesome personality
Intrinsic motivation
A creative environment
Is Intelligence Neurologically
Measurable?
• Brain size studies
– genes, nutrition, environmental stimulation, or
something else
• Grey matter vs. white matter
Is Intelligence Neurologically
Measurable?
• Perceptual Speed
• Neurological Speed
Process p.70
• Is intelligence or self-discipline more
important in predicting academic success?
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