02 Classical Music Part 2 the Symphony

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Classical Era
Part 2 – The Symphony
Haydn, Beethoven
The Nature of the Symphony
Historical Background
– Italian opera overture
Several standard techniques including those from
Mannheim
– rocket themes
– steamroller effects
Effects taken from the opera house
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Alternations of loud and soft
Sudden accents
Dramatic pauses
Tremolo/pizzicato
The Classical Orchestra
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30–40 players
The Movements of the
Symphony
I.
II.
III.
IV.
fast
slow
moderate
fast
I. First movement
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Allegro, sonata-allegro form
Slow introduction
Opposition of two keys
Can be monothematic
II. Second movement
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Three-part form (A-B-A), theme and
variations, or modified sonata-allegro
Largo, Adagio, Andante
In contrasting key
Lyrical mood
Emphasized the woodwinds
III. Third movement
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Minuet and trio, triple meter
Moderate tempo
Later: scherzo
IV. Fourth Movement
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Allegro molto or Presto finale
Sonata-allegro or rondo form
Fast and light
Folk-dance character
Mozart: Symphony No. 40 in G minor
I: Sonata-allegro form
 Exposition: intense theme, in G minor
– Lyrical second theme, in Bb major
– Codetta closes the exposition
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Development
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Rapid modulations
Three-note motive from the exposition
Thematic development
Building of tension
Recapitulation
– Both themes stated in G minor
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Coda closes the movement in G minor
Mozart: Symphony No. 40 in G minor
II: Sonata-allegro form
 Andante, in E-flat major
 Graceful and refined
III: Minuet and trio
 G minor
IV: Sonata-allegro
 Allegro assai (very fast)
 Rocket theme
35. Haydn and the Symphony
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Esterházy court
Symphony and string quartet
Joseph Haydn (1732–1809)
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Austrian composer
Folk song and dance
St. Stephen’s Cathedral in Vienna
Esterházys
– Esterháza
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Two successful trips to England
Died in 1809
Haydn’s Music
String quartet
 100-plus symphonies
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– London Symphonies
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Masses, oratorios
Haydn: Symphony No. 94
(Surprise) (Listening Guide)
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London Symphony
40-member orchestra
Haydn: Symphony No. 94
(Surprise) (Listening Guide)
Slow introduction
I: Vivace assai, sonata-allegro form
II: Andante (slower tempo), theme and variations
 Theme in C major
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Staccato
Repeated pianissimo
Four variations
Coda
Haydn: Symphony No. 94
(Surprise) (Listening Guide)
III: Allegro molto, minuet form
 G major
IV: Allegro molto, sonata-allegro form
Ludwig von Beethoven
36. Beethoven and the Symphony
in Transition
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Ludwig van Beethoven (1770–
1827)
German composer and pianist
Musical family
Unhappy childhood
Court musician
Played piano for Mozart in
Vienna
Welcomed to Vienna
Treated as equal, not as a
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Modified patronage
Concert life and music publishing
Hearing loss
Eccentric genius
Died at age 57, famous and
revered
Theory of cause of death: lead
poisoning
Beethoven’s Music
Three compositional periods
 1st: Early career
 2nd: Middle career, more “Romantic”
 3rd: Late career, introspective, chromatic
harmonies
Symphonies
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Nos. 1 and 2, Classical in
style
No. 3, “Eroica,” mature style
– Napoleon dedication
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Nos. 5 and 7, exhibit
universal appeal
No. 9, “Choral” Symphony
– Schiller’s Ode to Joy
Beethoven: Symphony No. 5 in C minor
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Rhythmic idea dominates entire work
– “three shorts and a long”
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Cyclical form
Tonality Shift
– C minor to C major
Beethoven: Symphony No. 5 in C minor
I: Allegro con brio, sonata-allegro form
– “Three shorts and a long” dominates the texture
II: Serene double theme and variations
– Recurrence of same rhythmic idea
III: Scherzo and trio
– Rocket theme
– Third and fourth movements linked
– Recurrence of same rhythmic idea
IV: Sonata-allegro form
– Recurrence of same rhythmic idea
– Extended coda
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