19 Romantic Unit 19

IB Music SL
Romantic Era
Unit 19
The Romantic Symphony
 Increased orchestra size
 Lyrical themes, colorful harmonies,
expanded proportions
The Romantic Symphony Form
 Overall structure similar to 18th
 Some symphonies have 5+ movements
 Tempo structure is altered
 Larger proportions
Brahms and the Late Romantic
Johannes Brahms (1833–1897)
German composer
Musical family
Early music studies, dance hall experience
Talent recognized by Robert Schumann
 Lifelong friend of Robert and Clara Schumann
 Settled in Vienna
 Died at 64
Brahms’s Music
 Traditionalist
 Romantic tendencies in chamber
music and lieder
 Four symphonies
 Third Symphony exhibits Classical &
Romantic traits
Brahms: Symphony No. 3 in F
 Written at age 50
 Classical in form, Romantic in tone
 Cyclical structure
I: Conventional sonata-allegro
 Three-note motive (F-Ab-F)
 “Frei aber froh” (Free but happy)
 Motive permeates the entire symphony
II: Andante, sonata-allegro form
III: Waltz, ternary form
IV: Sonata-allegro
Dvořák as a Symphonist
 Nationalist themes
 Czech national school
Antonín Dvořák (1841–1904)
Bohemian composer
Studied in Prague
Befriended Brahms
1891, Jeannette Thurber invites to U.S.
 National Conservatory of Music, in New York
 3 years in the U.S.
 A symphony, several chamber pieces, and a
cello concerto
 Spillville, Iowa
 Returned to Prague
 Died at 64 as a revered national artist
Antonin Dvorak
Dvořák’s Music
 German Classicism with national
 All genres
 Native musical heritage
 American student Henry T. Burleigh
 African American and Native American
traditional music
Dvořák: Symphony No. 9 in E minor,
From the New World
 Classical and Romantic traits
 Cyclical form
 Evokes the openness of the American
 Loosely programmatic
 Longfellow’s Song of Hiawatha
 Folklike melodies, syncopated rhythms,
rich orchestration
Dvořák: Symphony No. 9 in E minor,
From the New World
I: Sonata-allegro form
 Three themes
 Third theme reminiscent of Swing Low, Sweet
II: Largo, ternary form
 Hiawatha and Minnehaha
 English horn solo, later became “Goin’ home”
III: Scherzo
 Hiawatha’s wedding feast
IV: Sonata-allegro form
 Themes return
The Romantic Concerto
 New resources add size and depth
 Vehicle for virtuosic display
 Many composed for specific soloist
The Romantic Concerto Form
 Classical three-movement form
 Enhanced drama
 Lyrical slow movement
 Brilliant finale
Felix Mendelssohn and the
 Felix Mendelssohn (1809–1847)
 Overtly classical traits
 German composer, pianist, conductor,
music festival organizer, educator
 Cultured family
 Fine education
 Revival of J. S. Bach’s choral music
 Leipzig Conservatory
 Died at an early age (38) from a stroke
Felix Mendelssohn
Mendelssohn’s Music
 Classical forms, Romantic traits
 Large scale and small scale music
Mendelssohn: Violin Concerto in E
 Last orchestral work
 Composed for Ferdinand David
 No pauses between movements
Mendelssohn: Violin Concerto in E
Allegro molto appassionato
 No orchestral introduction
 Cadenza precedes the recapitulation
II: Andante
III: Allegro molto vivace, sonata-allegro
 Dazzling virtuosity of the coda
Amy Beach and Classical
Composition in America
 New England School
 Sought originality beyond European
musical tradition
 Promoting classical music in schools
and public concerts
 Second New England School
 Continued the tradition
Amy Cheney Beach (1867–
American composer, educator
Child prodigy
Henry Harris Aubrey Beach
1885 on: used name Mrs. H. H. A. Beach
European tour
Yearly U.S. tours
Music Educators National Conference
Music Teachers National Association
Society of American Women Composers
Brahms and Wagner
French Impressionism
Folk music (Irish, Scottish, English)
Wrote large-scale and small-scale works
Leadership positions:
Influenced by:
Amy Cheney Beech
Beach: Violin Sonata in A minor
 Composed for Franz Kneisel
 Impressive in scale
 I: Allegro moderato, sonata-allegro
 Extensive use of variation
 II: Scherzo and trio set in duple
 III: Largo con dolore