Classical Period
(Neo-Classical or Enlightenment Era)
18th century- 19th century
 1750-1825
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Classical Style
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“Neo” means new
Also known as the age of reason
Returned to ideas of ancient
Greece & Rome
Strict rules, pure uncomplicated
Embraces the music of Haydn,
Mozart, and Beethoven
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Classical Music
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2 important new kinds of music
 1. Sonata-written in 3-4 movements
(sections) for 1- 2 instruments
 2. Symphony-large piece written in 3-4
movements for an orchestra
2 great composers of the time
 1. Franz Joseph Haydn
 2. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
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Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart1756-1791
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Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
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Austrian born child prodigy (Unusual, extraordinary, a
marvel having unusual skills at something at an early age)
Was giving large scale performances by the age of 6
Known as 1 of the greatest composers of all time
Composed 1st symphony at age 8
Composed very quickly
He spread his reputation by publishing things, playing the
piano and having one of his operas performed in 1782
Died a very poor man at the age of 35
Buried in Vienna, small ceremony & unmarked grave
Composed The Magic Flute the year he died
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Mozart’s Father; Leopold
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Orchestra
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Orchestra-group of musicians Today’s orchestra
established during this time
Only had about 30-40 players, today 100+
Size of orchestra depended on size of the salon
(small parlor) & wealth of the people attending
Large concert halls didn’t exist. As they were
built larger & larger, more instruments added to
each instrument group
Sections of first Orchestra
o String Choir-violins, violas, cellos, & bass
o 6 Woodwind players-2 flutes, 2 oboes, 2
bassoons
o 4 Brass players-2 horns, 2 trumpets
o Percussions section-1 pair kettle drums
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Salon (Reading Hour)
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Modern Orchestra
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Franz Joseph Haydn1732-1809
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Franz Joseph Haydn
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Poor family, he was the son of a wheelwright.
He trained as a choirboy at age 8
Later lived in a palace for 30 years & paid to write as
much music as possible
At age 60 was invited to go to London to compose
symphonies & conduct public concerts
Played the harpsichord (piano-like instrument)
Grouped the instruments of the orchestra
Known as the father of symphony, composed 100+
Nickname “Papa” Haydn
He died in 1809 at the age if 77
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Harpsichord
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Harpsichord and Clavichord
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Haydn’s Writing
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Beethoven
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Ludwig von Beethoven
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Born on December 16, 1770 in Bonn
His first public concert was on March 26, 1778, at age 7
Became deaf in early 20s.
Considered rude & temperamental by many
Never heard his most famous symphony, 9th Symphony
Died exactly 49 years later on the same day as his first
concert.
When he died it is said that 10,000 people attended his
funeral.
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Classical Dance
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The Romonov family in
Russia wanted to
westernize their court so
they invited artists in
western Europe to
perform in Russia
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Jean George Noverre
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Was a choreographer
who saw the need to
reform in ballet.
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Marius Petipa
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Ballet dancer who danced
at the Imperial Theatre &
became chief ballet master
Choreographed Don
Quixote, La Bayadere, The
Sleeping Beauty, the
Nutcracker and Swan
Lake.
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Classical Theatre
• Drama very important to aristocratic court
• Melodrama means “music drama”
• Time of French & American Revolution,
philosophy & politics important
• Called the “good old days” of literature
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Moliere (Jean Baptiste Poquelin)
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French playwright & actor
Worked for King Louis XIV
Master of Satire (makes fun of humanity)
His death caused superstition thru even
modern theatre (He was wearing yellow
when he died & is still supposedly bad luck
to wear yellow)
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Neo-Classical Art
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Focused on the natural and belief n superiority of
rational thought over emotion.
Public buildings based on the ideals of perfection
of humanity.
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Jacques-Louis David
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Napoleon Crossing the St. Bernard
Pass, c.1801
French artist
Considered the hero of neoclassical art due to serious
artworks that represents the
ideals of that period.
Official artist of French
Revolution
Painted leaders of the war &
created costumes for them
Death was a result of being ran
over by a carriage
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Thomas Jefferson
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Thomas Jefferson was 3rd president, principal author
of Declaration of Independence, architect,
agriculturalist, etymologist, horticulturist,
archaeologist, cryptographer, surveyor,
paleontologist, lawyer, inventor, violinist,
mathematician, author, & founder of U. of Virginia.
Designed his home, Monticello, including automatic
doors & the first swivel chair
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Monticello & Jefferson Memorial
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Neo-Classical Art
Giovanni Paolo Pannini
The Colosseum and the Arch
of Constantine
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Neo-Classical Architecture
Rebelled against ornate Baroque style
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Classic Greek Architecture 600 B.C.
Temple of Hephaestus
Parthenon at Acropolis
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The Death of Marat
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History & Appreciation of the Arts - PPT over Neo