Climate Lesson

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Climate Lesson
What factors contribute to a
region’s climate?
Weather vs Climate?
• Weather: Atmospheric conditions
(temperature, rainfall, etc…) at a specific
point in time
• Climate: Atmospheric conditions
(temperature, rainfall, etc…) of a region
over a long period of time
Houston, Texas
• Weather
- Climate
Notes Template
• Use this template to create your own notes from the Power point.
Zones
of
Latitude
Factors
that affect
climate
Zones of Latitude
- A region’s latitude (distance from the equator)
can impact its climate.
- Sketch the diagram below.
Polar
Temperate
Tropical
Tropical
Temperate
Polar
1. High Latitude = ______________ zone, _____ ° N _____ ° S, where is it?
2. Middle Latitude = _______________ zone, _____ ° N _____ ° S, where is it?
3. Low Latitude = _________________ zone, _____ ° N _____ ° S, where is it?
Zones of Latitude
• Tropical Zones: Warm weather year
round. Area between the Tropic of Cancer (23 ½ º N) and the
Tropic of Capricorn (23 ½ º S).
• Temperate Zones: Warm summers
and cold winters (four seasons). Areas
between Tropic of Cancer (23 ½ º N) and Arctic Circle (66 ½ º N)
and Tropic of Capricorn (23 ½ º S) and the Antarctic Circle (66 ½ º
S).
• Polar Zones: Cold year round. Areas
north of the Arctic Circle and south of the Antarctic Circle.
POLAR
60°N
60°N
TEMPERATE
30°N
30°N
TROPICAL
30°S
30°S
TEMPERATE
60°S
60°S
POLAR
1. Which cities will have a
temperate climate?
2. Which cities are warm
year-round? What is this
zone of latitude called?
3. Which cities are in the
polar zone?
Notes Template
• Use this template to create your own notes from the Power point.
Rain
Shadows
Zones
of
Latitude
Topograph
y
Factors
that affect
climate
Topography - Elevation
• Elevation is the height above sea level
• The higher the elevation of a region the
cooler the temperature becomes.
Cooler
Temperatures
Warmer
Temperatures
Topography – Rain Shadows
• Mountains can create uneven rainfall.
• The windward side of the mountain is rainy while the
leeward side is very dry.
• Rain Shadows are desert regions created on the
leeward side of the mountain
Which side is the
leeward side, the
right or the left?
Windward
Which side is the
windward side,
the right or the
left?
1. Which gets more more
rain point A or point B.
2. What causes the
difference in rainfall
amounts between point A
and point B?
Hint: Rain
comes from
here
1. Which gets more more
rain point A or point B.
2. What causes the
difference in rainfall
amounts between point A
and point B?
Hint: Rain
comes from
here
If you said Point A gets more rain
because the Himalayas act as a
rain shadow you are correct.
Desert – arid
region with very
little rainfall
Humid Subtropical –
warm temperatures,
lots of rainfall
Notes Template
• Use this template to create your own notes from the Power point.
Elevation
Rain
Shadows
Zones
of
Latitude
Topograph
y
Factors
that affect
climate
Cities
Cities
• Buildings, parking lots, streets and other city structures
made of metal or asphalt absorb a lot of heat.
• This heat is transferred to the air.
• Increased smog and air pollution further trap this heat –
creating the:
heat island effect.
Notes Template
• Use this template to create your own notes from the Power point.
Elevation
Rain
Shadows
Zones
of
Latitude
Topograph
y
Cities
Factors
that affect
climate
Warm
Currents
Ocean
Current
s
Cold
Currents
Ocean Currents
• Ocean current move in large circular systems
• Ocean currents affect temperature and precipitation of
an area.
• Warm ocean currents make surrounding areas warmer
and rainy.
• Cool ocean currents make surrounding areas cooler and
drier
Warmer
and Rainy
Cool Ocean
Current
Cooler and
Drier
Warm Ocean
Current
Ocean Currents
Map Questions
•
Use the map on p. 153 of your textbook
to answer the questions below.
1. What is the climate of Madagascar? What is
the climate of Japan?
2. Which types of climate are present in the
tropical zone of latitude?
•http://www.mcwdn.org/MAPS&GLOBES/C
limate.html
Notes Template
• Use this template to create your own notes from the Power point.
Elevation
Rain
Shadows
Zones
of
Latitude
Topograph
y
Climate
Changes
El Niño
Cities
Factors
that affect
climate
Warm
Currents
Ocean
Current
s
Global
Warmin
g
Cold
Currents
Global Warming
• Global Warming is the build up of carbon dioxide
(greenhouse gases) in the atmosphere trapping heat and
causing increase temperature and shifting weather
patterns.
• Global Warming is being caused by both the human
release of greenhouse gases from the burning of fossil
fuels (oil, coal) and a natural warming cycle the Earth is
going through
• As the global temperature begins to rise many changes
will occur to climates around the world
• Complete the global warming simulation on the class
webpage.
– What are the effects of global warming?
El Niño
• The natural warming of waters off the west
coast of South America about every 2 – 7
years due to a reversal of wind direction.
• El Nino causes floods and mudslides in
the Americas.
• El Nino causes droughts in Australia and
Asia.
Climographs
• Climographs are a
combination of a line
graph, measuring
average temperature,
and a bar graph,
measuring average
rainfall, for each month.
Temperature
Rainfall
Notes Template
• Use this template to create your own notes from the Power point.
Elevation
Rain
Shadows
Zones
of
Latitude
Topograph
y
Climate
Changes
El Niño
Wind
Currents
Factors
that affect
climate
Warm
Currents
Ocean
Current
s
Global
Warmin
g
Cold
Currents
Major Climate Regions
• Tropical Wet: Always hot and rain falls almost daily (Amazon
Rainforest)
• Desert: Receives less than 10 inches of rain per year
(Phoenix, AZ)
• Semiarid: Receives between 10 and 16 inches of rain per
year (West Texas)
• Mediterranean: Dry and hot summers, cool and rainy winters
(Los Angeles, CA)
• Humid Subtropical: Hot and humid summers, mild to cool
winters (Houston, Tx)
• Marine West Coast: Located close to warm ocean currents.
Moderate temperatures and constant rainfall (Seattle, WA).
• Humid Continental: Hot summers and Cold winters.
Located in the interior, far away from oceans. Have four
distinct seasons (St. Louis, MO).
• Tundra: Always cold. Flat, treeless lands around the Arctic
Ocean. Very little rain. Land has permafrost. (Greenland)
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