Definition: the pressure the blood exerts on the walls of the arteries.
Hypertension = HIGH blood pressure
Hypotension = LOW blood pressure
Systole: the contraction phase, corresponds to the actual beat of the heart, and is the period of GREATEST pressure. Systole is the
Diastole: the relaxation phase, corresponds to the filling action of the heart, and is the period of LEAST pressure. Diastole is the
Definition: the difference between the systolic and diastolic readings.
Normal pulse pressure is 40
> 50 or < 30 is considered abnormal
General rule of thumb is that pulse pressure should be about one third of the systolic pressure.
Measured in millimeters of Mercury, or as it is written mm/Hg.
Use a sphygmomanometer, and a stethoscope.
Written as a fraction 120/80, where the systolic is 120 and diastolic is 80.
1. Placement of cuff: brachial artery (just above the elbow
2. Close valve
3. Inflate bladder with bulb
4. SLOWLY release the valve
5. Listen…1 st sound, and last sound…
100 - 140
60 - 90
1 st sound : Systole= heart @ work
Last Sound: Diastole = heart @ rest
Apical= stethoscope for 1 minute…
Rhythm: refers to the regularity of the pulse (regular or irregular)
Rate: the number of beats per minute
Volume: refers to the force or strength of the pulse: normal, bounding, weak, thready (barely perceivable)
Tachycardia: > 100 beats per minute
Bradycardia: < 60 beats per minute
Exception: many athletes normally have heart rates < 60 because their heart is in better shape.
Pulse deficit: The difference between the apical pulse and the radial pulse.
Pulse deficit can indicate certain heart conditions, that will be diagnosed by further testing.
Measurement of breathing
This is tricky, you must “fool” the patient by letting them think you are continuing to count heartbeats and at the same time watch the chest rise and fall.
Hyperventilation: excessively fast and deep respirations
Dyspnea: difficult or labored breathing
Apnea: no breathing..
Rales: noisy breathing
Crackles: Heard in the bases of the lungs..sounds like …(demo)
Respirations are: Normal, shallow or deep, regular or irregular
Cheyne Stokes: slow shallow breaths that increse in depth and frequency to be followed by a few shallow breaths and then apnea for
>10 seconds.. This usually precedes death.
One inhalation, one exhalation=1 resp.
Count by watching the chest rise and fall
DON’T TELL THE
NORMAL= 12-20 breaths per minute.
Definition: the amount of heat the body generates under normal or stressed conditions.
Oral – under the tongue
Rectal – in the anus
Axillary – under the armpit
Clean with alcohol.
Place under tongue.
For 3 minutes.
Rectal & Axillary=