chapter 11 - Crestwood Local Schools

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CHAPTER 11
Science and Technology
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From 1790 to 1840, you have seen an explosion
of new inventions. These include the cotton gin,
the steamboat, the steel plow, and the telegraph.
You have also seen neighbors leave their farms
to run machines in new factories. You sense that
the country is changing.
How will new inventions change your country?
• What would it mean to be able to grow
more grain and cotton?
• What would it mean to communicate
and travel more quickly?
• How might it feel to do factory work
instead of farm work?
1807 Robert Fulton launches a steamboat on the
Hudson River.
1808 Congress bans the African slave trade.
1812 War of 1812 disrupts U.S. shipping.
1813 Weaving factory built in Waltham,
Massachusetts.
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1820 Missouri Compromise balances number
of slave and free states.
1823 Monroe Doctrine issued.
1825 Erie Canal completed.
1831 Nat Turner leads slave rebellion in Virginia.
To World
1844 Telegraph line connects Washington,
D.C., and Baltimore.
1804 Haiti wins independence from France.
1815 Napoleon defeated at Waterloo.
1821 Peru and Mexico gain independence from Spain.
1825 First public railroad operates in England.
1833 Slavery is abolished in British Empire.
1839 Louis Daguerre is recognized for his
photographic process.
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Main Idea
New machines and factories changed the way
people lived and worked in the late 1700s and
early 1800s.
Why It Matters Now
The industrial development that began more
than 200 years ago continues today.
What were some new inventions of this period? When
were they invented? How did they affect the United States?
INVENTION
DATE
EFFECTS
interchangable parts
1801
standardized goods
steamboat
1807
improved river transportation
steel plow
1836
increased food production
telegraph
1837
increased communication
• Why was New England a good
place to build early factories?
• What were working conditions
like in Lowell mills?
• How were different U.S. regions
linked economically?
Making Judgments
How would you judge Samuel Slater
and Francis Lowell, who brought secrets
to the United States illegally?
Think About
• what they gained
• how they affected the United States and England
• what you believe about keeping technology secret
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Main Idea
The invention of the cotton gin and the
demand for cotton caused slavery to
spread in the South.
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Why It Matters Now
The spread of slavery created lasting racial and
sectional tensions.
Who were the different groups of Southerners?
What were they like?
GROUP
FACTS
slaveholding whites
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one-third of population,
large planters were powerful
nonslaveholding whites
small farms, supported slavery
enslaved blacks
one-third of the Southern
population, variety of jobs
free blacks
8 percent of blacks in the South,
faced restrictions
• How did the cotton gin lead to the
spread of slavery?
• How was life different for plantation slaves,
city slaves, and free blacks in the South?
• What were three ways that
enslaved people resisted slavery?
Drawing Conclusions
Why do you think Southern
whites reacted as they did to
Nat Turner’s rebellion?
Think About
• Turner’s trial and hanging
• the killings that followed the rebellion
• the new laws that were passed
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Main Idea
Patriotic pride united the states, but tension
between the North and South emerged.
Why It Matters Now
The tension led to the Civil War, and regional
differences can still be found in the United
States today.
What contributed to national
unity during the early 1800s?
national bank
protective tariffs
road and
canal systems
NATIONAL
UNITY
strong federal
government
settled national
boundaries
Map
• How did the Erie Canal help the nation grow?
• How did the Missouri Compromise resolve a
conflict between the North and South?
• What was the main message of the Monroe
Doctrine, and who was it directed toward?
Recognizing Effects
If the Supreme Court had decided differently
in Gibbons v. Ogden or McCulloch v. Maryland,
what might be one result today?
Think About
• if states could interfere with federal laws
• if states controlled interstate commerce
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REVIEW QUESTIONS
ANSWERS: READ AND TAKE NOTES
1 How did the War of 1812 push the United
States to build factories?
2 Why did its many rivers make the Northeast
a good place to build early factories?
3 What was one effect of the steamboat?
4 How did interchangeable parts transform the
manufacturing process?
5 Why did slavery spread in the South?
6 What were three hardships faced by
enslaved people on plantations?
7 How did religion help people endure or resist slavery?
8 How did the Supreme Court’s ruling in McCulloch v.
Maryland strengthen the federal government?
9 How did the United States gain
the territory of Florida?
10 What were the terms of the Missouri Compromise?
Analyzing Causes and Recognizing Effects
CAUSES
cotton gin, textile factories,
farming advances, better
transportation
slavery, different
economies, tariffs
better communication, better
transportation, economic cooperation,
national currency, stronger federal
government, territorial gains
EFFECTS
REGIONAL
GROWTH
SECTIONAL TENSIONS
NATIONAL
UNITY
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