Breadfruit

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Breadfruit
A Tale of Two Domesticates?
Outline
 Artocarpus
altilus
 Biology and Distribution
 The Relatives
 Methods of Determination
 Origins…
Artocarpus altilus
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Moraceae
Tree Crop
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Grown for infructescence
rather than vegetative
storage structures
Staple of Oceania
2 “generalized” cultivars
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A. altilus (Ken Sytsma)
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Variety of uses
Seedless
Few-->Many Seeded
High productivity
Seasonal
Mmm…just like potatoes
Breadfruit Biology
Monoecious
Pollen quantity varies
Parthenocarpic fruit
development in seedless
Pollination mechanism
unknown
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http://www.biologie.uni-hamburg.de/b-online/library/webb/BOT410/Angiosperm/FlowersFruitsSeedsLabCombo.htm
Distribution
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http://www.hawaii.edu/powerkills/WF1.WORLD.JPG
Diversity
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Fruiting Season
Fruit Shape
Fruit Color & Texture
Infructescence
surfaces
Flavor
Sections
Leaves
Seeds
SEMs of trichomes
Infertility
2n=3x=˜84; 2n=2x=56
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http://geo.cbs.umn.edu/~nyree/breadfruit_page.html
Ranges of Close Relatives
A. mariannensis
A. camansi
Fig 2. Zerega et al. (2005)
Methods of Determination
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Morphology, ITS and trnL-F region
AFLPs
Isozymes
Fig 10.2
AFLP Data
Fig. 10.4
Fig. 4
NJ Tree
Fig. 3 Zerega et al. (2005)
AFLP (cont.)
Fig. 3 Zerega et al. (2004)
Fig. 10.5
MDH isozyme phenotypes &
AFLP markers
Fig. 10.3
What trends are seen in the
data?
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Melansian and Polynesian breadfruit
cultivars are more closely related to A.
camari
Micronesian cultivars are closely related to
Polynesian and Melanesian A. camansiderived breadfruit and to A. mariannensis
Micronesia has the greatest genetic
diversity; however, Polynesia cultivars are
most genetically differentiated
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Dependent on mode of reproduction and
human selection
Analysis of Molecular
Variance Based on AFLP
Individual Islands Serve as Repositories for
Genetic Diversity
Pattern and Process
and Man’s Migrations
Melanesia and Polynesia
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Assumption:
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High genetic variability=Region of Origin
Colonization during Pleistocene (40,000
yrs ago), dispersal of A. camansi to “near”
Oceania, and human selection
Lapita cultural complex shifted to
vegetative propagation for longer voyages
(4,000 yrs ago)
From Fig 1. Zerega et al (2004)
Micronesia
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Triploid A. camansi-derived “E Polyn”
Hybrid cultivars
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Fertile and sterile diploids and sterile triploids
Human involvement a must as ranges of
A. camansi and A. mariannensis do not
overlap
Settled from multiple directions many
times…
From Fig 1. Zerega et al (2004)
What about the rest of the
World?
Travels of the HMS Bounty
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X
Travels of the HMS Bounty
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Captain Bligh
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Transport Breadfruit to the Caribbean from
Tahiti on the HMS Bounty
The “No Paradise” rule
Mutiny
Navigated 3600 nautical miles using a
sextant and a pocket watch
Pitcairn Island
Returned and took 347 breadfruit plants to
St. Vincent and Jamaica on February 5th,
1793
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Thank You
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