Lecture on Monroe Doctrine

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Monroe Doctrine
US History
Prior
to
Presidency
of
Monroe
Embargo Act, you say?
The United States’ attempt to change the policies of
• Foreign
policy
of the US
was
the European
powers
by economic
means.
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neutral.
Washington’s
Proclamation
In 1807, after –the
British ship Leopard
fired of
on the
Neutrality
(1793)
American frigate
CHESAPEAKE,
Jefferson
– Washington’s
urged and Congress
passedFarewell
an EMBARGO ACT.
• It banned all–American
shipsEmbargo
from foreign
Jefferson’s
Acttrade.
(1807)
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•
Result: The embargo failed to change British and French
• 1812
WarNew
was
exception
policies but
devastated
England
shipping. Later and
– Warmeasures
hawks were
sought
in
weaker economic
alsoexpansion
unsuccessful.
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Canada.
Under Monroe
• James Monroe’s
Presidency (1817-1825).
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– He establishes a major
foreign policy precedent
that guides foreign policy
throughout the 19th
century:
• The Monroe Doctrine.
– How did it happen?
Monroe Doctrine Origin
• 1823 Imperial Russia intruded on US’s
Pacific territorial claims in Oregon
region.
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– At the same time….
• Alliance of European powers (Austria,
France, Prussia, Russia) sought to
reclaim
Latin American
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and a colonies that
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declared independence
during the
are needed
to seeWars.
this picture.
Napoleonic
In response…
• Monroe’s Secretary of State,
John Quincy Adams, urged
Monroe to warn Europe
– not to continue to colonize the
Western Hemisphere.
– In exchange, the US would not
interfere with existing colonies
– AND the US would remain
neutral in Euro affairs.
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Monroe Doctrine promulgated
• Monroe outlined this foreign policy in his
1823 December message to Congress.
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Did it work?
• Britain backed
Monroe.
– They wanted to keep
its trade with the new
American republics
flourishing.
– It successfully
discouraged the
European alliance.
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George Canning, GB For Min
Could it have been enforced?
• It is unlikely that the
US in the early 19th
century could enforce
it.
– Very small navy!
– Without Britain’s help,
it would not have
worked.
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